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Flashcards in Style Deck (15)
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1

Theories of style

1. Attention paid to speech
2. Audience design
3. Speaker design

2

Attention paid to speech - careful articulation in NYC

+ easy to replicate (sociolinguistic interview)
- artificial
- reduces variation to a liner scale

3

Speech accommodation theory (2. Audience design)

Giles & Powesland (1975)
Convergence and Divergence

4

Coupland (1984) travel agents

Voicing of intervocalic /t/ reflected that of clients

5

Bell (1984) newsreaders on New Zealand radio

Style shifted according to the station they were on and therefore the audience who were listening

6

Evaluate audience design

+ more flexible
+ tailored to specific context
- only one dimension
- doesn’t account for full creativity

7

Attention to speech and audience design don’t reflect how dynamic speakers are

Eckert (2000)

8

Speaker design

Don’t fit predefined categories that align with features
The features combine in an infinite number of ways

9

Podesva (2008) Heath - caring doctor vs diva

More frequent -t/-d deletion in relaxed setting
More intonation on declaratives when working as doctor
Frequent falsetto when relaxed

10

Eckert (2000) Connie

Jock who uses the raising (ay) burnout feature
Wanted to be independent/rebellious

11

Ochs (1992) direct/indirect indexing

- few features directly index social categories
- index stances, acts
- index different meanings dependant on context

12

Advantages of indexicality explanation

- less deterministic
- relates class to other social identities

13

Bell - extent of style-shifting

The closer the header the more influence they have - addressee vs eavesdropper
Intraspeaker variation greater than interspeaker

14

Foxy Boston (Richard & McNair - Knox, 1994)

More -s agreement of verb be agreement when speaking to African American

15

Robert Vana (1998) Spanish/Catalan speakers

Childhood networks have more impact than those at any other point of life