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Flashcards in Studying Variation Deck (9)
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1

What is a variable? (Labov)

Two or more ways of saying the same thing that have referential equivalence

2

Chomsky - competence vs performance

Hymes (1974) communicative competence is the combination of the two

3

External constraints

Social constraints

4

Internal constraints

Linguistic constraints

5

Stereotype

Widely recognised and strongly associated with a speech variety

6

Markers

Feature of which speakers are aware and may style-shift

7

Indicators

Features that are socially stratified but used consistently by speakers

8

Significance of linguistic conditioning, the need to properly define variables

Macaulay 1977
T-glottaling in Glasgow
- more in lower class
- stratification more apparent in word-medial position

9

Dialect chain (Holmes)

Language similar to that of the next area, the link up with overlapping features