Superficial structures of Neck: Cervical Regions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Superficial structures of Neck: Cervical Regions Deck (37):

Lateral region of neck

Anterior: Posterior border of SCM
Posterior: Anterior border traapezius
Superior: Merging of SCM and trap
Inferior: clavicle (between SCM and trapezius)
roof: investing layer of deep cervical fascia
floor: muscles covered by prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia


anterior region of neck

anterior: median line of neck
posterior: anterior border of SCM
superior: inferior border of mandible
inferior: superior sternum
roof: subcutaneous tissue
floor: pharynx, larynx, thyroid gland


platysma origin

inferior border of mandible, skin and subcutaneous tissue of lower face


platysma insertion

fascia covering superior parts of pectoralis major and deltoid muscles


platysma innervation

cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII)


platysma action

draws corners of mouth inferiorly and widens it: sadness and fright
draws skin of neck superiorly when teeth are clenched: tension


Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) origin

lateral surface if mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral half of superior nuchal line


SCM insertion

sternal head: anterior surface of manubrium of sternum
clavicular head: superior surface of medial third of clavicle


SCM innervation

spinal accessory nerve (CN XI (motor))
C2, C3: pain and proprioception


SCM action

unilateral contraction: lateral flexion of neck and rotates it so face is turned superiorly to opposite
bilateral contraction: extends neck at a-o joints; flexes cervical vertebrae so chin approaches manubrium; extends superior cervical vertebrae while flexing inferior vertebrae so chin is thrust forwar while head kept level
with cervical vertebrae fixed: may elevate manubrium and medial end of clavicles, assisting pump handle action of deep respiration


spinal accessory nerve

passes deep to SCM, supplying it
enters lateral cervical region at or inferior ti junction of superior and middle thirds of posterior border of SCM
passes posteroinferiorly running on levator scapulae from which it is separated by prevertebral layer of fascia
disappears deep to anterior border of trapezius then enters muscle


brachial plexus

roots: anterior rami of C5- C8 and T1 appear between anterior and middle scalene musce
5 rami to 3 trunks (superior middle, inferior)
descend inferolaterally through lateral cervical region
passes through 1st rib, clavicle, and superior border of scapula (cortico axillary canal) to enter axilla, innervating upper limbs


suprascapular nerve

arises from superior trunk brachial plexus
runs across lateral cervical region to supply supraspinatus and infraspinatus
also articular branches to glenohumeral joint


cervical plexus

anterior rami C1-C4
anteromedial to levator scapulae and middle scalene muscle, deep to SCM
superficial branches-> posterior-> cutaneous
deep: anteromedially: motor


nerve point of neck

middle of posterior border o SCM
cutaneous branches of cervical plexus emerge, supply skin of anterolateral neck, superolateral thoracic wall and scalp between auricle and eop


branches of cervical plexus from nerve loop between anterior rami of C2 and C3

lesser occipital nerve: C2: skin of neck and scalp posterosuperior to auricle
great auricular nerve: C2 and C3: ascending vertically across SCM onto parotid gland, where divides and supplies skin and sheath of gland, posterior aspect of auricle, and angle of mandible and mastoid process
transverse cervical nerv: C2, C3: skin covering anterior cervical region, nerve curves around middle of posterior border of SCM and passers anteriorly and horizontally across it, deep to EJV and platysma


supraclavicular nerves

C3 and C4
arise from loop of cervical plexus between C3 and C4 anterior rami
supply skin of shoulder
branches of dorsal scapular nerve, long thoracic nerve (supplies serratus anterior)


phrenic nerves

from C4, but contributions from C3, C5
motor, sensory, and sympathetic nerve fibers
motor supply to diaphragm and sensation
mediastinal pleura and pericardium
anterior scalene muscle at level of superior border of thyroid cartilage


external jugular vein

begins near angle of mandible crosses SCM obliquely, descends to inferior part of lateral cervical region and continues as subclavian vein


accessory phrenic nerve

lateral to main one


subclavian vein

cant read


brachiocephalic vein

cant read


suprascapular artery

arises from cervicodorsal trunk or directly from subclavian artery
inferomedially across anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve
passes posterior to clavicle to supply muscles on posterior aspect of scapula


occipital artery

branch of external cervical
supplies posterior half of scalp


anterior scalene origin

anterior tubercles of transverse processes C3-C6


anterior scalene insertion

`1st rib


anterior scalene innervation

cervical spinal nerves c4-c6


anterior scalene action

flexes neck laterally, elevates 1st rib during forced inspiration


middle scalene origin

post5erior tubercles of transverse processes of C4-C7


middle scalene insertion

superior surface of 1st rib, posterior to groove for subclavian artery


middle scalene innervation

anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves


middle scalene action

flexes neck laterally
elevates 1st rib during forced respiration


posterior scalene origin

posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C4- C6


posterior scalene insertion

external border of second rib


posterior scalene innervation

anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves C7 and C8


posterior scalene action

flexes neck laterally, elevates 2nd rib during forced inspiration


muscles of floor of triangle

middle scalene, posterior scale, levator scapulae splenius capitis