are sound modifications that signal meaning other than segmental phonemes (combinations of sounds).
The vocal Levels at which sound is produced
2 A Raised 2
represnts the level of pitch known as Rising Pitch, used when we begin to speak.
3A superscript 3
represents the level of pitch (volume) when we are at the accented syllable of the word that gets most stress in an utterance.
1A superscript 1
represents the falling away of pitch as we come to the end of a grammatical unit.
is rarely used except in statements of strong fear, anger, excitement, etc.
The Dog at the Bone
2The dog ate the 3bo′ne1.↓
After the dance, the three giggle girls went to wendy's.
2After the 3dance,2→2the three giggling cheerleaders went to 3We′ndy’s1.↓
In symbolizing a intonation contour, pitch should be marked in three places:
At the beginning of the contour (grammatical unit)
At the beginning of the syllable bearing the primary stress
At the end of the unit before the terminal (the punctuation mark indicating closure)
Two Patterns of Pitch
231 and 233 (232)
Used in giving commands
Used in questions that begin with a question word (Who, what, when, where, why, how, etc.)
Used in statements/declarative sentences
2Today is 3 Th'ursday1↓.
2Please shut the 3w′indow1.↓
2Who is that striking 3w′oman1?↓
233 (232) Pattern
Yes or No questions in question form
Yes or No questions in statement form
Initial grammatical units
2Are you going to the 3c′oncert tonight3?↑
2You are Mary’s 3b′rother3?
is the emphasis (or lack of emphasis) placed on a syllable.
Four Levels of Stress
Primary stress– denoted by a '
Secondary stress—denoted by a ^
Tertiary (or mid) stress—denoted by a `
Unaccented syllables—denoted by a ˘
Tertiary (or mid) stress
In a two-syllable noun, which syllable usually gets primary stress?
the first syllable
In a two syllable verb,, which syllable egts the primary stress?
the second syllable
Produce as a verb
Produce as a noun
Stress Patterns: Compound Nouns
′ `, primary stress on the first syllable and mid stress on the other major syllable.
Verb and Noun Object