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Structure Classes

The structure class words in the English language have the following characterisitics:

The classes are small, The classes are closed, and the words in the classes usually do no change their form.


Types of Structure Classes




are noninflected words which connect their objects with the rest of the sentence in phrases.

Prepositional phrases are either adjectival, or adverbial by position- i.e. they modify nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs


Prepositional Phrase

consists of the preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object
ex: The present was wrapped in a pretty red bow.
The car in the last row belongs to me.



words that pair with adj and adv to modify them: very, extremely, quite, kind of, sort of, etc.
ex: The water was extremely warm.
The water was boiling hot.



limit the words they modify. The number of words that can act as restricters is quite limited in the English language.
ex: even, only, just, nearly, almost, particularly, especially



is a word that pairs with a noun in a pronominal position.
ex: The dog, That dog, Any dog, John's dog, His dog



These words immediately precede the determiner (whether the determiner is stated or implied). They are: all, both, half, double
ex: both the doctors read


Post determiner

come immediately after a determiner but before any adj that may modify a noun. They include the following:
Cardinal and ordinal members
Possessive of common nouns
Amounts such as few, singles, less, more, most
ex: The most delightful times of my life are those I spend with my family.
The first cool nights of the year have finally arrived.


Coordinating Conjunctions

seven coordinating of English connect structures of equal grammatical rank: two independent clauses, two dependent clauses, two nouns, two verbs, two adjectives, two adverbs, etc.
The coordinating conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS)


Subordinating Conjunctions

add one clause to another in a subordinate (unequal) relationship.
examples: when, although, before, after, if, even though, since, beacuse, where, though, until, while, as soon as, in order that, so that, etc.


Personal Pronouns

do reflect person, number, and gender, but they do not inflect in the same way as a noun.
ex: I,my, you, ours, them, their


Reflexive Prounoun

These -self pronouns usually occur in the predicate part of the scentence, renaming the subject of the scentence.
The firefighter went into the building himself rather than sending in his men.
I told myself that I would retire.


Demonstrative Pronouns

are this, that, these, and those. When they are in the prenominal position, they act as determiners, in the predicate or subject position they are noun subsitutes. WHEN THE SUBJECT, it is DEMONSTARTIVE.
Pronouns: That is my book
DEterminer: that book is mine.


Intensive Pronouns

These –self pronouns immediately follow the noun they refer to, and they add emphasis to that noun.
I myself baked those cookies (rather than going out and buying them).
Once you yourself have experienced parenthood, you will understand the joys of parenthood; you really can’t see it through someone else’s eyes.


Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are connectors which relate an adjective clause to the noun it modifies in the sentence in which it appears. Examples are who, whom, which, whichever, whoever, that, etc.

ex: The book, which was weathered and torn, must have been read many times.
The reason that I love teaching is that it is never boring.


Interrogative Pronoun

These pronouns are those used in asking questions (making question transformations): who, what, whose, which, whoever, whomever, etc.
Who is that masked stranger?
Which of you wants to go first?
What’s the plan, man?


Indefinite Pronouns

These pronouns refer to nonspecific people or things; they do not change form to reflect, gender, person or number.
Anyone, everyone, some, nothing, everything, few, many several, all, none, most, no one, one, etc.



The English language has three kinds of auxiliaries: primary, modal, and periphrastic. Auxiliaries are also known as helping verbs.
Primary—forms of be and/or have
Modal—can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, ought to
Periphrastic—do, did



These are the so-called “empty words” followed by a linking or be verb:
There seems to be a problem here.
There are three ducks in the pond.