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Flashcards in Surveillance and Reporting at International Level Deck (18):

Define surveillance

The systematic, continuous or repeated measurement, collation, analysis, interpretation and timely dissemination of animal health and welfare related data from defined populations


What is the definition of a notifiable disease?

A disease for which there is a statutory requirement to report a suspicion of a clinical case


What is the definition of a reportable disease?

A statutory requirement to report laboratory confirmed isolation of organisms of genera Salmonella and Brucellosis (can be any other disease defined by government body)


Who has a duty to report zoonoses in people?

Regulations place duty on employers/self employed/those in control of premises to report accidents/emergencies at work including zoonoses
Can be done by phone or online form


What are the reporting pathways for national boards to international organisations?

Defra -> OIE
APHA -> European Commission and FAO
Public Health England -> efsa, ecdc, WHO, European Commission


What is the OIE (World Animal Health Organisation)?

Formed in 1924 in response to international trade problem based in Paris to implement an international agreement controlling epizoonotics with a strong role on receiving and disseminating information on disease prevalence


What is the mandate of the OIE?

To develop and hold standard approaches to disease diagnostics, surveillance and disease control


How often do the OIE meet and who attends?

Once a year in May with each member country sending their Chief Veterinary Officer or the equivalent


What are the responsibilities of the OIE?

Collect and publish official data on animal disease occurrence
Publish information on diagnostic tests and disease control
In 1998 signed an agreement to act as an arbitrator in the case of animal health trade disputes
Involved in accreditation of veterinary services


What is EMPRES Animal Health, Plant Protection and Food Safety programme?

Run by the FAO
International cooperation involving early warning, early reaction, coordination and capacity development


What is the EMPRES Global Animal Disease Information System?

It is a web based system to collate various data sources (both official and unofficial
Provides updated information of global animal disease, distribution and current threats at the national, regional and global level


What is the WHO?

Directing and coordinating authority for health within the UN


What is the WHO responsible for?

Shaping the health research agenda
Sets norms and standards
Articulates evidence-based policy options
Provides technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends


What is the Global Early Warning System (GLEWS) made up of?

Disease tracking systems e.g. FAO EMPRES Global Animal Disease Information System
Disease alerts, Trends and analysis, forecasting, risk assessment
Additional information = other FAO and UN data, refugees movements, climatic data, production and economic data, wildlife and other migration


What is the European Food Safety Authority?

Independent source of scientific advice and communication on risks associated with the food chain
Part of a comprehensive programme to improve EU food safety, ensure consumer protection and restore and maintain confidence in the EU food supply


What is the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)?

Aims to identify, assess and communicate current and emerging threats to human health posed by infectious diseases working in partnership with national health protection bodies across Europe to strengthen and develop continent wide disease surveillance and early warning systems


What is the European Surveillance System (TESSy)?

System for collection, validation, cleaning, analysis and dissemination of data used for data analysis and production of outputs for public health action


What does the EU legislation for surveillance require?

Reporting duties for defined diseases
Animal Disease Notification System designed to register and document important infectious animal diseases