Systematic, continuous observation of populations, and collection and analysis of data from many varied sources:
What are the 2 main purposes for epidemiological surveillance?
Rapid detection and appropriate response to important health events.
Communication of valid information about health and disease status of population.
T/F: Surveillance involves study of one population, affected by one disease.
Someone that observes, collects data, and reports to central unit.
Can be a vet, farmer, market, laboratory, etc.
Someone that gathers and aggregates information from data providers, analyzes the data, and coordinates the system.
Can be USDA, researchers, vets, doctors.
Someone that intervenes on Central Unit order.
Can be authorities, vets, police.
Someone that informs data providers and the public about the situation.
Can be news, radio, TV.
What are the 4 parts of a surveillance system?
What are the goals of animal health surveillance?
Maintain and improve animal health and economic viability of animal based food production.
Protect public health: zoonotic and foodborne diseases
5 purposes of surveillance:
*a surveillance system can have one or several of these purposes
Rapid detection of outbreaks
Support disease control/elimination
Evaluate control/biosecurity systems
Asses population health/food safety
Produce info about disease
What defines a disease outbreak?
Abnormal number of cases of disease
Foreign or emerging disease new to the area
Increasing number of cases of endemic disease
Surveillance of poultry flocks and dead wild birds for avian influenza would fall under which purpose of surveillance systems?
Rapid detection of outbreaks.
Identification of infected farms for control measures, such as the US slaughter program for TB, and increased surveillance of neighboring farms during an avian influenza outbreak, falls under what purpose of surveillance systems?
Support disease control/elimination
Detection of foodborne diseases, which points to an issue in the farm or abattoir, and the outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease in the US fall under what purpose of surveillance systems?
Evaluation of biosecurity/border security/control systems
OIE nations being required to estimate disease risk associated with their animal products, and report occurrence of diseases, falls under what purpose of surveillance systems?
Assess population health and safety of food products
Evaluating the importance of diseases and noting changes in the distributions and risk factors falls under what purpose of surveillance systems?
Produce information about diseases
How does learning about changes in disease epidemiology help with the control and prevention of disease?
T/F: The immediate response to a case of Brucellosis is a defined response to a defined event, and is considered surveillance.
The immediate response to disease outbreaks is considered part of surveillance
Communication about disease surveillance to Data Providers is important because:
They need to know disease status, control system effectiveness, changing disease patterns, and changing risk factors so they can properly collect data and notify the central unit.
A dog with a suspected case of Rabies presents at your clinic and you call the State veterinarian to report the disease. What kind of surveillance is this?
*most common type
Continuous surveillance, detection of emerging diseases, and low cost are advantages of what kind of surveillance?
What are the cons of passive surveillance?
No control on data origin
Doesn’t represent the population
No reports of stigmatized diseases
If the central unit is seeking out cases of a specific disease, it is what type of surveillance?
What are the pros of active surveillance?
Representative of the population
Valid estimate of disease occurence
What are the cons of active surveillance?
Can only do once or rarely
Need individual identification
Targeting old cattle with neurological symptoms for BSE is what kind of active surveillance?
T/F: Targeted surveillance enhances detection of a disease for lower cost, and works well to assess freedom of a disease.
Is targeted surveillance representative of the population?
When a small group is monitored several times as an indicator of the greater population, such as testing of the same farm in an area, it is what kind of targeted surveillance?
What are the cons of sentinel surveillance?
Expensive: testing over and over again
Not representative of the population
T/F: Sentinel surveillance works well as an early warning for diseases that may be trying to spread.
What is the difference in the time periods for longitudinal surveys and surveillance?
Surveys are limited in time, while surveillance is durable and can go on forEVER.
Between longitudinal surveys and surveillance, which collects more data?
Surveillance is low data
T/F: Surveillance epidemiology is descriptive or analytic.
Descriptive only! Longitudinal surveys can be analytic.
The stakeholder in a longitudinal study is the _________, while the stakeholder for surveillance is ______.