A previously unknown disease that suddenly appears in a population or a known disease that suddenly appears in a new population:
Smallpox is a known disease that was previously thought to be eradicated in the US. Recently, due to decreased vaccination rates, Smallpox has been showing up again and is likely to get more common as time goes on.
Smallpox is an example of what kind of disease?
What disease re-emerged in the UK in 2001, causing billions of dollars of damage to the food animal industry?
Foot and Mouth Dz
A pathogen that is exclusive to an animal reservoir is in what stage of Cross-Species Disease emergence?
If a pathogen within an animal reservoir can be transmitted to both humans and other animals, but cannot be transmitted among them, it is in what stage of cross-species disease emergence?
What are examples of diseases in Stage 2?
West Nile virus
Influenza H5N1 (bird flu)
If a pathogen within an animal reservoir can be transmitted to humans and other animals with a few cycles of transmission among them, it is in what stage of cross-species emergence?
Nipah virus, in stage 3 of cross-species emergence, can infect both humans and pigs, and can then be transmitted among them.
What are the clinical signs of Nipha virus in pigs and humans?
Humans: encephalitis. 40% fatality rate
If an animal reservoir transmits a disease to humans and other animals, and there is then sustained transmission among those humans and animals, the disease is in what stage of cross-species emergence?
Ebola, transmitted from bats to monkeys and humans, and also sometimes transmitted between human hosts, is in what stage of emergence?
SARS and Influenza H1N1 (swine) are both efficiently transmitted among humans. In what stage of cross-species emergence are they?
In 2009, a recombinant strain of what virus was declared “pandemic” after spreading globally within weeks of discovering the first human cases on Mexico?
Swine Influenza (H1N1)
If a pathogen becomes exclusive to a new reservoir species, ie: humans, it is in what stage of cross-species energence?
What are some 5 stage diseases that have become exclusive to a human reservoir?
HIV/AIDS: from primates
Measles: from cattle
Smallpox: from rodents/camels
Dengue: from old world primates
Yellow Fever: from African primates
Host range, proportion of known zoonoses in family, and phylogenetic relativity to other known zoonoses are _____ ______ traits contributing to estimating zoonotic potential of novel viruses.
Geographic hotspots, host species traits and relatedness, host abundance, viral prevalence in host, and contact interface are ______ ______ traits contributing to zoonotic potential of novel viruses.
Which taxonomic groups have a high proportion of viruses shared with humans?
What are the 4 main drivers to pathogen emergence?
Land use changes
How does land use contribute to pathogen emergence?
Urbanization increases density of susceptible human hosts.
Changing land use and climate change favor water- and vector-borne disease transmission.
How do food and agriculture systems contribute to pathogen emergence?
Heavy increase in livestock breeding and output = overcrowding, stress, uniform genetics = higher susceptibility.
Illegal/exotic animal trades introduce new pathogens to new areas and increase risk of cross-species transmission (SARS)
What factors of climate change influence human and animal health?
Extreme heat Severe weather Environmental degradation Water/food supply impacts Water quality impacts Increasing allergens Changes in vector ecology Air pollution
How does human behavior contribute to pathogen emergence?
Increased transmission due to tourism (increased contact with exotic domestic and wildlife), exacerbated by faster travel times.
Intentional release: Bioterrorism, Bio-crimes, Agroterrorism