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Introductory Sommelier Exam (CMS) > Sweet Wines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sweet Wines Deck (28)
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1
Q

Sweet wines are made throughout the winemaking world.

Depending on the appellation or the style of sweet wine permitted within an appellation, sweet wines are generally made in the ___ or in the ___.

A
  1. In the vineyard
  2. In the winery
2
Q

What are the 4 ways to make sweet wine in the vineyard?

A
  1. Late Harvest
  2. Botrytis / Noble Rot
  3. Drying grapes – either on the vine or after they’ve been picked
  4. Freezing grapes on the vine
3
Q

What are the 4 ways to make sweet wine in the winery?

A
  1. Fortification
  2. Chilling down the wine and filtering out remaining yeast
  3. Chilling down the wine and hitting it with sulfur dioxide (SO2) which kills any remaining yeast
  4. Adding sweetness into the wine
4
Q

What is the intention of trying to make a sweet wine in the vineyard?

A

To concentrate the grape sugars

5
Q

Describe Late Harvest.

A

Grapes left on the vine after normal harvest to allow sugars to concentrate

6
Q

What is Botrytis cinerea and what does it do?

A
  • A mold aka Noble Rot;
  • Lives in humid regions;
  • Mold spores attack grapes leaving holes in the skin, causing grapes to dehydrate and concentrate the sugars;
  • Grapes shrivel (and yields are reduced);
  • Causes oxidation of grape juice, which slightly darkens the wine;
  • Distinct flavors develop: mushroom (from the mold!), honey, saffron, candied ginger.
7
Q

Drying grapes to concentrate their sugars – where is the drying done?

A
  1. On the vine
  2. On mats after they’ve been picked
8
Q

How are grape sugars concentrated by freezing the grapes on the vine?

A
  1. Healthy grapes (read: low-to-no Botrytis) are left on the vine into winter to freeze;
  2. When the grapes freeze it’s the water in the berries that are frozen, not the sugars, so the sugars concentrate and intensify;
  3. Once the grapes are frozen they’re hand picked and pressed, and only the sweet nectar is released (the frozen water stays behind).
9
Q

Name 2 styles of wine made by freezing grapes on the vine.

A
  1. Icewine > Canada
  2. Eiswein > Germany
10
Q

Name 3 countries where you find sweet wines that are affected by Botrytis / Noble Rot.

A
  1. France
  2. Germany
  3. Hungary
11
Q

In France, name 3 regions that make Botrytis-affected sweet wines.

A
  1. Bordeaux
  2. Alsace
  3. Loire Valley
12
Q

What is the appellation in Bordeaux that is famous for its Botrytis-affected wine?

A

Sauternes

13
Q

What are the 2 styles of Botrytis-affected wine in Alsace?

A
  1. Vendange Tardive (VT)
  2. Sélection de Grains Nobles (SGN)
14
Q

What are the 3 appellations in the Loire Valley that make Botrytis-affected wines?

A
  1. Quarts de Chaume
  2. Bonnezeaux
  3. Vouvray Moelleux (pronounced MWAH-luh)
15
Q

Which 3 German wines can be affected by Botrytis?

Hint: it’s 3 Prädikat levels.

A
  1. Auslese (can have Botrytis, but it doesn’t always)
  2. Beerenauslese (BA)
  3. Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)
16
Q

What region in Hungary is known for its Botrytis-affected wine?

And what is this wine called?

A

Tokaj = region

Tokaj Aszú = name of the wine

17
Q

What does the word Aszú mean?

A

That the grapes were affected by Botrytis

18
Q

Where is the Tokaj region within Hungary?

A

Northeastern corner

19
Q

What is the main grape of Tokaj that goes into Tokaj Aszú?

A

Furmint

  • there are 5 other white grapes allowed
20
Q

How is Tokaj Aszú made?

A
  1. Botrytis-affected grapes are harvested berry by berry, collected in small bins, then brought to the winery;
  2. Botrytised grapes are made into a mushy paste;
  3. Paste is added to a base wine (made from non-Botrytised grapes);
  4. Amount of paste determines sweetness level.
21
Q

What is Tokaj Eszencia?

A
  • Wine made from only the sweet, syrupy, free-run nectar from 100% Botrytised grapes;
  • There’s so much sugar the yeasts are overwhelmed, so abv is low (4-6%)
  • Wickedly expensive (retail ~US$200-$500)
  • Rare (not made every year)
  • Insanely delicious
22
Q

What country makes several sweet wines made from drying grapes?

A

Italy

23
Q

What are the 2 terms on labels that indicate the wine is both sweet and made from dried grapes?

A
  1. Passito
  2. Recioto
24
Q

Name 3 Italian appellations and the region they’re in which make sweet wines from dried grapes.

A
  1. Vin Santo > Tuscany
  2. Elba Aleatico Passito > Tuscany
  3. Recioto della Valpolicella > Veneto
  4. Recioto di Soave > Veneto
25
Q

When a winemaker wants to make sweet wine but isn’t working with grapes whose sugars were naturally concentrated, what action can they take?

A

Stop fermentation so the yeasts stop metabolizing the sugars.

26
Q

How does fortification stop fermentation?

A

The high alcohol level of the neutral grape spirit is enough to kill the yeasts and therefore stop fermentation, leaving natural sugars in the wine.

27
Q

What are the 2 ways you can stop fermentation after chilling a wine?

A
  1. Filtering out the remaining yeasts
  2. Adding sulfur dioxide (SO2) to kill any remaining yeasts
28
Q

Name 2 ways to add sweetness back into a wine.

A
  1. Add unfermented grape juice
  2. Add sweet wine to a dry wine