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Flashcards in U.S. Wine Laws + California Deck (72)
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1
Q

What is the name of the governing body that oversees the beverage alcohol industry in the United States?

A

TTB

Tax and Trade Bureau

2
Q

What does the TTB do?

A
  • defines and approves the boundaries of AVAs
  • delimits AVAs based on unique geographical, physical, and climatic features
3
Q

What are AVAs?

A

American Viticultural Areas

  • they refer to geographic location only (read: not political designations, etc.)
4
Q

What were the first 2 AVAs in the United States?

A
  • Augusta, Missouri - 1980
  • Napa Valley, California - 1981
5
Q

What are the U.S. labeling laws by variety?

(or, if a wine has a variety printed on the label, what must the mimumum percentage of that grape be in that wine?)

A

75% minimum if from:

  • America
  • State
  • County
6
Q

There is one U.S. state that has a higher minimum percentage if the wine is labeled by varietal.

What is that state and what is the percentage?

A
  • Oregon
  • 90% minimum grape if listed on the label
7
Q

In the U.S., if a bottle of wine has a stated vintage on the label and the wine’s appellation is a STATE or COUNTY, how much of the stated vintage must be in the bottle?

(e.g. Rodney Strong California Cabernet Sauvignon 2016, or Morgan Santa Barbara County Pinot Noir 2018)

A

85% must come from the stated vintage

8
Q

In the U.S., if a bottle of wine has a stated vintage on the label and the wine’s appellation is an AVA, how much of the stated vintage must be in the bottle?

(e.g. Saintsbury Carneros Pinot Noir 2017)

A

95% must come from that vintage

9
Q

If a U.S. bottle of wine whose stated appellation on the label is from COUNTRY (U.S.), STATE, or COUNTY, what minimum percent must the wine from that state, county, or country?

A

75%

10
Q

In the U.S., if a bottle of wine is labeled with a specific AVA, what minimum percent must the wine be from that AVA?

A

85%

11
Q

If a U.S. bottle of wine states that the wine comes from a specific, single vineyard, what minimum percent of the wine must come from that vineyard?

A

95%

12
Q

What does it mean when a U.S. bottle of wine states that it is “Estate Bottled”?

A

100% of the grapes must be grown on land owned or controlled by the producer (winery), and that land must be in an AVA.

13
Q

In what century was U.S. viticulture started on the East Coast?

By whom?

A
  • mid-1500s: French Huguenots are credited with starting wine production in Florida;
  • 1600s: vines planted in Jamestown and in the northeast by settlers.
14
Q

In what century was U.S. viticulture started on the west coast, and who planted the first grapevines?

A
  • 16th century: Franciscan monks planted vines in what is now Texas and New Mexico;
  • 17th century: Franciscan monks planted vines in California.

Grapes were used for sacrament

15
Q

Who was Agoston Haraszthy?

(pronounced hair-az-tee)

A
  • Originally from Hungary
  • Considered the patriarch of California wine industry
  • Founded Buena Vista winery 1857
  • His full bio can be read here
16
Q

What were some setbacks the U.S. wine industry suffered in the late 1800s - early 20th century?

A
  • Phylloxera arrived, decimating vineyards (phylloxera is originally from east of the Mississippi);
  • Prohibition (1920-1933)
  • Great Depression (1929-1939)
  • World War II (U.S. involvement 1941-1945)
17
Q

Who were two influential winemakers in California following Prohibition?

A
  • André Tchelistcheff
  • Robert Mondavi
18
Q

Today, the U.S. is the world’s __th largest producer of wine.

A

4th

19
Q

How do the climates of coastal California differ from inland California?

A
  • Coast: cool
  • Inland: warm to hot

The further inland you go, the hotter the climate becomes

20
Q

Mountain ranges in California can either block or funnel in cool Pacific Ocean breezes, depending on their _____.

A

Orientation

If a range runs north-south, it blocks cool air; if a range runs west-east, it funnels in cool air.

21
Q

What are California’s 4 major wine growing areas?

A
  1. North Coast
  2. Central Coast
  3. Central Valley
  4. Sierra Foothills
22
Q

What 4 counties make up the North Coast?

A
  1. Mendocino
  2. Lake
  3. Napa
  4. Sonoma
23
Q

What are California’s major grape varietals, both red and white?

A

White grapes

  • Chardonnay
  • Sauvignon Blanc

Red grapes

  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Pinot Noir
  • Merlot
  • Zinfandel
24
Q

In which county is the Napa Valley?

A

Napa County

25
Q

What is the length of Napa Valley?

Where does it start?

A
  • ~30 miles long
  • Starts at San Pablo Bay
26
Q

What are the 2 mountain ranges in the Napa Valley?

A
  1. Vaca Mountains (east side)
  2. Mayacamas Mountains (west side)
27
Q

Which mountain range separates Napa and Sonoma counties?

A

Mayacamas Mountains

28
Q

What is the name of the river that runs through the Napa Valley?

A

Napa River

29
Q

What is the climate of Napa Valley?

A
  • Generally: dry Mediterranean
  • Cooler air in south from San Pablo Bay
  • Cooler at higher altitudes (in mountains)
30
Q

What part of the Napa Valley benefits most from the cool air and fog from San Pablo Bay?

A

The southern part, especially Carneros.

31
Q

As one moves up the Napa Valley from Carneros to the north, what happens to the air and temperatures?

A

Air and temps get hotter and drier.

The cool air from San Pablo Bay pushes hot air up valley, which bottlenecks in St. Helena and Calistoga.

This is why there can be as much as a 30ºF difference between the temperature in Calistoga and the temperature in San Francisco.

32
Q

Because of the climate differences between the southern part Napa Valley to the northern part, what does that mean for viticulture (or, what can be planted)?

A

Different grapes can be planted thanks to the temperature differences from south to north.

  • Cooler, southern parts plant Pinot Noir
  • Hotter, northern parts plant Cab Sauv + Zin
33
Q

At what altitude are some Napa Valley vineyards planted?

A

2000 ft asl

34
Q

What are 5 of Napa Valley’s most important AVAs?

A

From north to south:

  1. Howell Mountain
  2. Rutherford
  3. Oakville
  4. Stags Leap District
  5. Carneros
35
Q

What is the difference between soils of Napa Valley Mountain sides versus the Napa Valley floor?

A
  • Valley floor: alluvial, well-drained gravel
  • Mountain sides: rocky, thin soils

There are more soil types: volcanic, clay, and even some maritime.

36
Q

Where are vineyards planted in the Napa Valley:

  • valley floor
  • hillsides
  • higher-elevation slopes
  • all of the above
A

All: valley floor, hillsides, and higher-elevation slopes

37
Q

What are diurnal shifts in the Napa Valley caused by?

What effect do the diurnal shifts have on the grapes?

A

Diurnal shift cause: morning and late afternoon fogs from San Pablo Bay and the Pacific Ocean

Diurnal shift effect: fogs moderate the temperatures which aid the grapes in retaining acidity and freshness

38
Q

Where in Napa Valley are sparkling wines made?

A

Carneros

39
Q

Generally speaking, what is the style of wines from the Napa Valley?

A

Full throttle

  • White wines will go throgh malo and often times see new oak;
  • Red wines will have extended use of new oak, both French and American

The overall Mediterranean climate encourages ripe grapes with ripe flavors and high sugars, which means higher abv.

40
Q

What are the natural borders of Sonoma County?

A
  • Pacific Ocean to the west
  • Mayacamas Mountains to the east
41
Q

Sonoma County has a varied climate. Which areas are cooler and which areas are warmer?

A

Cooler:

  • coast (the closer to the ocean the cooler it is)
  • altitude
  • areas affected by fog and Pacific breezes

Warmer

  • inland
42
Q

What is the name of the gap, or wind tunnel, in northern California’s coastal mountain range that ushers in fog and cool air to more inland areas?

A

Petaluma Gap

For a map and to read more about it, click here.

43
Q

Describe Sonoma County’s landscape.

A

Bracketed by mountains and hilly inbetween.

44
Q

What are the 2 main white grapes of Sonoma County?

A
  1. Chardonnay
  2. Sauvignon Blanc
45
Q

What are the 5 main red grapes of Sonoma County?

A
  1. Pinot Noir
  2. Cabernet Sauvignon
  3. Merlot
  4. Zinfandel
  5. Syrah
46
Q

What are some climatic and geographical factors in Sonoma County that can influence viticulture?

A
  • Hillsides (drainage)
  • Elevation (cooler as you go higher)
  • Diurnal shifts (helps grapes maintain freshness)
47
Q

Styles of wine in Sonoma County are determined a lot by _____ and _____.

A

Climate and cooling factors

48
Q

Name Sonoma County’s 6 most important AVAs.

A
  1. Carneros
  2. Sonoma Coast
  3. Sonoma Valley
  4. Alexander Valley
  5. Russian River Valley
  6. Dry Creek Valley (hot!)
49
Q

Which 2 Sonoma County AVAs are on or near a major body of water?

A
  • Sonoma Coast (on the Pacific)
  • Carneros (heavily influenced by San Pablo Bay)
50
Q

What is Mendocino County’s location?

A

Situated north of Sonoma County, and it lies on the Pacific Ocean as well.

51
Q

What’s the general climate of Mendocino County?

A

Cool near the coast and warm inland

52
Q

Anderson Valley is the most important AVA of which county?

A

Mendocino County

53
Q

Anderson Valley AVA is best known for making what style of wine?

A

Traditional Method sparkling wines

54
Q

What is the climate of Anderson Valley AVA?

A

Cool coastal climate

55
Q

What are the main grapes of Anderson Valley AVA?

A
  • Chardonnay
  • Pinot Noir
56
Q

What are 3 counties in California’s Central Coast from north to south?

A
  • Monterey County
  • San Luis Obispo County
  • Santa Barbara County
57
Q

What is the largest and most encompassing AVA of Monterey County?

A

Monterey AVA

This AVA has smaller, nested AVAs within it.

58
Q

What is the climate of Monterey AVA?

A

Cool Maritime

59
Q

What are some weather influencers in Monterey AVA?

A
  • fog and strong winds near the coast
  • hot inland and hot towards southern parts
60
Q

What happens to the mountains that run along Monterey County’s coast and what do they help usher in?

A

The mountains take a turn and run east-west from north-south.

That turn allows fog and cool air to be funneled inland from the coast, helping to cool down hotter inland areas.

61
Q

What is the main white grape in Monterey AVA?

A

Chardonnay

62
Q

What are the main red grapes in Monterey AVA?

A
  1. Pinot Noir
  2. Cabernet Sauvignon
  3. Merlot
  4. Zinfandel
63
Q

What is San Luis Obispo County’s most important AVA?

A

Paso Robles AVA

64
Q

What is the general climate of Paso Robles AVA?

A

Very warm overall with hot days and cool nights

65
Q

Why doesn’t Paso Robles AVA have much maritime influence?

A

Mountains block the maritime influence so the AVA remains quite warm.

There is a teeny area within the Paso Robles AVA that benefits from some cool air funneled in thanks to a small break in the coastal mountain range.

66
Q

What is the main white grape of Paso Robles AVA?

A

Chardonnay

67
Q

Main red grapes of Paso Robles AVA

A
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Zinfandel
  • Red Rhône grapes
    • Grenache
    • Syrah
68
Q

What is the overall climate of Santa Barbara County?

Does it change from the coast going inland?

A
  • Overall climate is Maritime
  • Cool, windy and rainy coast moves into warm, dry inland
69
Q

In addition to Monterey County, what other California county sees the Coastal Range turn to an east-west direction, funneling in cool Pacific air?

A

Santa Barbara County

70
Q

Name 3 important AVAs of Santa Barbara County.

A
  1. Santa Maria Valley AVA
  2. Santa Ynez Valley AVA
  3. Sta. Rita Hills AVA
71
Q

What are the 2 main white grapes of Santa Barbara County?

A
  1. Chardonnay
  2. Sauvignon Blanc
72
Q

What are the 5 main red grapes of Santa Barbara County?

A
  1. Pinot Noir
  2. Grenache
  3. Syrah
  4. Cabernet Sauvignon
  5. Merlot