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Flashcards in Swine (Sithole) Deck (98):
1

What are the 3 components of commercial breeding farms?

Nucleus herds

Breeding herds

Finishing herds

2

What do you call a herd that is proven to be free from a certain disease? What if there is firm evidence that the disease is not present, but the herd cannot be declared 100% free of that pathogen?

Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) herds

High health herds

3

How are piglets born in SPF herds?

Via C-section

4

40 years ago piglet production was 16 piglets per sow per year, now sows produce ____ piglets per year. 

a. 10-15

b. 20-24

c. 30-34

d.  35-40

c. 30-34

5

What dietary component is required for early weaning of piglets?

Animal proteins

6

What 2 feeding components can induce health risks, including diarrhea and gastric ulceration?

High protein

Finely ground feed 

7

How many days after parturition does each piglet have its own teat?

3 days

8

What can be done to prevent pigs/piglets from biting eachother out of boredom?

Environmental enrichment

9

What is the method used to optimize health, welfare, and production in a population of animals through the systematic analysis of relevant data through regular objective observations of the animals and their environment, such that, informed timely decisions are made to adjust and improve herd management over time?

Herd Health Management (HHM) approach 

Key words: optimize health, welfare, production; data, informed timely decisions

10

What are (some of the) the objectives of HHM?

5 total

1. Optimize health status by preventing health, production and reproductive problems

2. Optimize productivity by improving herd management practices 

3. Optimize animal welfare and ecological quality of the environment

4. Optimize the quality and safety of dairy and meat products

5. Optimize profitability of the enterprise

11

What are 2 reasons for monitoring production data?

May provide a reflection of both clinical and subclinical disease

May provide a reflection of sub-optimal husbandy (e.g. imbalanced diets, stressors)

12

Why do the strongest/largest piglets get the front teats?

They produce the most milk

13

With which body system are many of the early infections in neonatal piglets related to?

GI tract

14

What does sow colostrum contain which enhances the uptake of intact immunoglobulins?

Anti-trypsin factor

15

Why are young piglets extremely susceptible to enteral infections? What can occur when they are housed in an area that is too cold?

Stomach pH is close to neutral

Chilling can cause low gastric motility

16

What disease causes diarrhea due to multifocal suppurative and erosive colitis in piglets 2-10 days of age? 

Clostridium difficile-associated enterotoxemia

17

What does orange-stained diarrhea indicate and what is it caused by?

Sign of fecal blood loss

Caused by A/B toxins of C. difficile

18

Which cause of enterotoxemia in 2-10 day of piglets is treated with Bacitracin in sows and piglets or with Salinomycin? There is also a vaccination available for the condition.

Clostridium perfringens type-A

19

How does the vaccination against enteric colibacillosis function?

Prevents attachment of the bacterial fimbria/pili of E.coli

20

In addition to hypothermia, shivering, watery diarrhea and possibly vomiting, what  can E.coli cause in piglets?

Fibrinous polyserositis 

Stressed in lecture

21

Which disease causes recently weaned piglets to squeal abnormally when handled? It can also result in sudden death and neurological symptoms. 

Edema Disease (Colibacillosis) - E.coli (certain serotypes)

Stressed in lecture

22

What is the source of infection for coccidiosis (Isospora suis) in piglets?

Carrier sows

23

You treat a piglet for what you suspect is colibacilosis, but there is no response to the antibiotics you are giving. What disease is now your top differential? What is the treatment?

Coccidiosis

Tx: Toltrazuril (coccidiostat)

24

What form of viral diarrhea causes occasional vomiting in piglets?

Rotaviral enteritis

25

What causes bright yellow feces and vomiting, often in older piglets? 

Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)

26

What is the main DDx for a piglet with swollen joints and abscesses?

Streptococcus suis

 

27

What zoonotic disease causes septicemia, acute meningitis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, or bronchopneumonia in nursing or recently weaned piglets? Which disease that affects older pigs is also zoonotic?

Streptococcus suis

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

28

What are your top 2 DDx for a piglet presenting with CNS signs after weaning?

Edema disease

Streptococcus suis

29

What syndrome usually occurs within 3 days of farrowing and is characterized by inadequate milk production?

MMA (Mastitis, Metritis, Agalactia)

(or Hypogalactia)

30

What etiologic agent is the most common cause of mastitis in sows?

E.coli (Environmental bacteria)

31

What causes teat necrosis in young piglets and which teats are most commonly affected? How can this be prevented?

Endogenous estrogen (from sow or colostum) or exogenous (zearalenone) estrogen making the teats for vulnerable to trauma

Front teats

Taping the teats shortly after birth

32

What disease causes dermatitis, characterized by 1-20 cm raised, red, ring-shaped lesions usually on the ventral abdomen, in pigs 4-12 weeks old? How is it treated?

Pityriasis rosea

No treatment required, resolves eventually and most recover completely

A image thumb
33

You notice a neonatal piglet with lateral extension of the hind legs with an inability to adduct the legs. What is the cause of this condition and what can be done to increase the likelihood of survival?

Myofibrillar hypoplasia (due to delayed development and degenerative change)

Can tie back legs together loosely

This is splay leg

34

Why must sows who persistently produce piglets with splay need need to be culled/removed from the breeding stock?

Because there is a genetic component to the disorder

35

What inherited condition is characterized by the absence of discrete areas of skin, usually over a part of the back, loin, thigh, or anterior surface of the tongue? What 2 conditions often accompany this? 

Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta

Hydroureter and Hydronephrosis

A image thumb
36

What should you rule out when noticing umbilical bleeding in a group of piglets?

Warfarin poisoning

37

What age groups are most commonly affected by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Growing or adult swine

38

Name 4  (or more) conditions that cause cyanosis in pigs.

Erysipelas

African Swine Fever

Classical Swine Fever

Salmonellosis

Actinobacillas pleuropneumonia

Haemophilus parasuis (Glasser's)

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

 

39

What aspect of erysipelas results in abortions in sows?

Fever

40

What are the 2 treatment options for erysipelas?

Penicillin

Antiserum

41

What is the etiologic agent for Greasy Pig Disease (Exudative epidermatitis)?

Staphylococcus hyicus

42

What condition causes brownish sports, 1-2cm in diameter, covered by serum and exudate in piglets <8 weeks old?

Greasy pig disease 

aka Exudative dermatitis 

S. hyicus

A image thumb
43

What clinical signs are associated with swine dysentery? What is the etiologic agent? 

Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (at first mucoid - gray to yellow), tail twitching or humped, gaunt appearance, dehydration 

Marked inflammation of the large intestines 

Most common in growing/finishing periods

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

44

What causes spirochaetal colitis? What age group is most commonly affected?

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Younger pigs

Causes mild colitis 

45

What are the 2 main pathologies caused by salmonellosis? Which strain causes each type?

Septicemia - S. cholerasuis

Enterocolitis - S. typhimurium

46

How is Salmonellosis transmitted? What is the source of infection to humans?

Fecal-oral route or aerosols; Disseminated by rodents and wild birds

Asymptomatic swine harboring inapparent infections that become pork (human source of infection)

47

What does Lawsonia intracellularis cause in pigs?

Porcine Proliferative Enteritis 

(Ileitis, intestinal adenomatosis)

Causes: Hyperplasia of crypt enterocytes with inflammaion +/- ulceration or hemorrhage

48

What are your 2 DDx for a pig that suddenly dies and is found to have blood in the intestinal tract?

PPE

Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome

49

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is usually seen in ______ week old piglets. The bacterium secretes ___ exotoxins.

a. 6-20; 4

b. 1-4; 4

c. 30-40; 4

d. 1-4; 6

e. 6-20; 6

 

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is usually seen in 6-20 week old piglets. The bacterium secretes exotoxins.

a. 6-20; 4

Exotoxins: Apxl - ApxIV

50

What clinical signs are associated with APP (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae)?

Sudden death (most common in acute outbreaks)

Prostration

Hyperthermia

Apathy 

Anorexia 

Cough

Cyanosis

 

51

What causes Atrophic Rhinitis (Progressive Atrophic Rhinitis)?

Toxigenic strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocide 

(Primarily Type D)

52

You notice "dirty" hair below the canthus of a pig's eye, as well as a nose bleed, and slight dorsal deviation of the snout. What is your top DDx?

Atrophic rhinitis

53

T/F: Glasser's Disease (Haemophilus parasuis) is widely distributed and usually causes no disease. 

True 

54

What 4 maladies characterize acute Glasser's disease?

Meningocephalitis

Polyserositis

Polyarthritis

Bacterial pneumonia (contributes to)

55

What widespread, chronic respiratory disease of swine potentiates other infections?

Mycoplasmal pneumonia 

aka Enzootic Pneumonia 

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

56

What is the rapidly spreading viral disease characterized sudden onset of fever, occulonasal dscharge, prostration and weakness, followed by paroxysmal coughing for 5-7 days?

Swine Influenza 

Subtype H1N1 common in USA

57

A sow that is getting close to being ready to be bred has recently gained a lot of weight (without becoming overconditioned) and is now walking abnormally. Radiographic lesions can be seen on the medial femoral condyle. What is the likely diagnosis and what is the treatment?

Osteochondrosis 

No tx, cull sow

58

A pig farmer has recently employed his super fail son-in-law to help him care for his pigs. He is in charge of cleaning and maintaining the water nipples in the barn. After hearing this, what problem might the farmer have in the near future?

Salt poisoning (due to water deprivation)

59

What disorder causes unique meningeal and cerebral perivascular cuffing by eosinophils in the brain?

Salt poisoning 

60

What part of the GIT is affected by gastric ulcers in pigs?

Pars esophagea/ non-glandular stomach

61

What age of pigs are affected by whip worm? What is the species? What type of diarrhea does it cause and what other disease does it look similar to? 

Feeder/finishers and mature swine

Trichuris suis

Mucoid or mucohemorrhagic diarrhea 

Looks like swine dysentery (can also occur together)

62

How long after an infection with T.suis can eggs be detected in a fecal sample?

8 weeks

63

What virus causes PMWS (postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome)? Who is usually affected?

Porcine circovirus Type 2 

Nursery and growing pigs

64

What other conditions/syndromes is PMWS associated with?

PDNS (porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome)

PRDC (porcine respiratory disease complex)

Reproductive failure

65

T/F: Nearly all herds in the USA are seropositive for porcine circovirus. 

True

66

What can be done to reduce the severity and incidence of PMWS?

Vaccination against PCV-2

67

What is the most economically significant disease to affect US swine production since the eradication of classical swine fever? 

PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome)

Arterivirus

68

What syndrome in PRRS is more commonly seen in young, growing pigs and in naive finishing pigs and breeding stock?

Respiratory

69

What will happen to piglets born to a sow infected with PRRS while pregant?

Piglets will be viremic and persistently infected 

70

Match the species with the type of host it is for FMD. Which of these shows the most clinical signs and which the least?

Sheep/Goats

Cattle

Pigs 

Indicator host

Amplifier host

Maintenance host

Shee/Goats = Maintenance  -> Least CS

Pigs= Amplifier HOOF lesions are more severe than in cattle

Cattle= Indicator -> Most CS

71

Which of these species is not a carrier for FMD?  In those that are carriers, where does the virus reside?

Sheep

Pigs

Cattle

Pigs

Pharyngeal tissue

72

Which species remains a carrier for FMD for up to 2 years? 

Cattle 

6-24 months 

Sheep/Goats = 4-6 months

73

What is the highly infectious, often fatal, disease of swine caused by a flavivirus (genus Pestivirus) that is characterized by fever, inappetence, weakness, erythematous lesions and severe leukopenia? 

Classical Swine Fever

74

Which of the following is not a clinical sign of an ACUTE classical swine fever infection? 

Cyanosis

High fever (105F)

Conjunctivitis

Diarrhea 

Vomiting

Petechia/ecchymosis

Vomiting

75

How is classical swine fever spread?

Direct contact

76

Which is more severe, Classical or African Swine Fever?

African Swine Fever

77

Which vesicular disease that may affect swine is found in marine animals off the coast of California?

San Miguel Sea Lion Virus (SMSLV)

78

Which disease, Vesicular Stomatitis or Swine Vesicular disease, is endemic in the Carolinas and Georgia? Which has never been in the USA?

VS -> Endemic to Carolinas, Georgia

Swine Vesicular Disease -> Never in US (Last outbreak in Italy 1995)

79

T/F: Porcine Epdemic Diarrhea is a coronavirus clinically similar to Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE). There is cross-protection between the two viruses which is why vaccination against TGE provides protection against PED. 

False, there is NO CROSS-PROTECTION

80

Which virus may be inactivated by heating trailers to 160F for 10 minutes or by maintaining them at room temperature (68F) for at least 7 days?

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea 

Coronavirus

81

A sow gives birth to a litter of weak piglets that are largely devoid of hair and have mucinous edema over their enlarged foreparts. What nutritional deficiency do you suspect?

Iodine

82

How is iodine deficiency avoided in gestating sows?

Adding iodized salt to the ration

83

Why is iron deficiency a problem in piglets (3 reasons)? 

Born with little iron reserve 

Colostrum and milk provide only 15-50% of daily iron requirement

Rapid growth and blood volume expension

84

How can iron deficiency be prevented and treated in piglets?

Give them access to iron-rich soil/clay

Orally administer water-soluble iron

Parenteral injection iron dextran (NOT INTO NECK MUSCLES beyond 7 days of age)

85

What is the zinc-responsive dermatosis usually observed in 2-4 month old swine?

Parakeratosis

86

What is the most common cause of zinc-responsive dermatosis in piglets?

Consumption of excess calcium

87

What are your 2 DDx for parakeratosis in 2-4 month old piglets?

Sarcoptic mange

Greasy Pig Disease 

 

88

______ is a disease of growing bones while _______ is a lesion of mature bones.

Rickets

Osteoporosis

89

What are some causes of Rickets?

Dietary deficiency of vitamin D or phosphorous

Confinement resulting in no access to sunlight (Vit D)

No grain or protein in diet (Phos)

90

A highly prolific sow begins developing fractures in the latter part of nursing. What disorder do you suspect? What is the most important etiological factor?

Osteoporosis

Inappropriate ration formulation or mixing 

Another cause = lack of exercise 

91

What can feeds high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, copper, or vitamin A result in? What is another cause of this? 

Vitamine E deficiency 

Myocotoxins

92

What 3 syndromes does Vitamin E/Selenum deficiency cause?

Mulberry Heart Disease

Hepatosis Dietetica (HD)

White Muscle Disease

93

How are nursing piglets exposed to aflatoxins?

Ingestion of toxin by lactating dam (passed in milk)

94

Does acute or chronic aflatoxicosis cause ascites? Which causes icterus? 

Subacute-Chronic -> Ascites

Acute -> Icterus

95

T/F: Chronic aflatoxicosis can occur at levels as low as 300 ppb while acute toxicity usually occurs at levels greater than 1000ppb. 

True

96

What does infection of Claviceps purpurea cause in pigs (clinical signs and name of condition)? Which body parts are most commonly affected?

 

Ergotism 

Ischemic necrosis followed by dry, gangrenous sloughing of parts of extremities; Inhibition of mammary development, reduced litter size and birth weights as well as post-farrowing agalactia 

Tails, ears, hooves

97

What are the 3 components of fumonisin toxicosis? What does each toxin cause?

T-2 toxin - crusting and ulceration 

Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) - vomiting

Zearalenone (F-2) - estrogenic effect (tenesumus, rectal prolapse, persisgtent anestrus, pseudopregancy, decreased libido, decreased testicular size, preputial enlargement)

98

How are very young piglets exposed to  fumonisin toxicosis?

Via sow's milk