What are the 3 components of commercial breeding farms?
What do you call a herd that is proven to be free from a certain disease? What if there is firm evidence that the disease is not present, but the herd cannot be declared 100% free of that pathogen?
Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) herds
High health herds
How are piglets born in SPF herds?
40 years ago piglet production was 16 piglets per sow per year, now sows produce ____ piglets per year.
What dietary component is required for early weaning of piglets?
What 2 feeding components can induce health risks, including diarrhea and gastric ulceration?
Finely ground feed
How many days after parturition does each piglet have its own teat?
What can be done to prevent pigs/piglets from biting eachother out of boredom?
What is the method used to optimize health, welfare, and production in a population of animals through the systematic analysis of relevant data through regular objective observations of the animals and their environment, such that, informed timely decisions are made to adjust and improve herd management over time?
Herd Health Management (HHM) approach
Key words: optimize health, welfare, production; data, informed timely decisions
What are (some of the) the objectives of HHM?
- Optimize health status by preventing health, production and reproductive problems
- Optimize productivity by improving herd management practices
- Optimize animal welfare and ecological quality of the environment
- Optimize the quality and safety of dairy and meat products
- Optimize profitability of the enterprise
What are 2 reasons for monitoring production data?
May provide a reflection of both clinical and subclinical disease
May provide a reflection of sub-optimal husbandy (e.g. imbalanced diets, stressors)
Why do the strongest/largest piglets get the front teats?
They produce the most milk
With which body system are many of the early infections in neonatal piglets related to?
What does sow colostrum contain which enhances the uptake of intact immunoglobulins?
Why are young piglets extremely susceptible to enteral infections? What can occur when they are housed in an area that is too cold?
Stomach pH is close to neutral
Chilling can cause low gastric motility
What disease causes diarrhea due to multifocal suppurative and erosive colitis in piglets 2-10 days of age?
Clostridium difficile-associated enterotoxemia
What does orange-stained diarrhea indicate and what is it caused by?
Sign of fecal blood loss
Caused by A/B toxins of C. difficile
Which cause of enterotoxemia in 2-10 day of piglets is treated with Bacitracin in sows and piglets or with Salinomycin? There is also a vaccination available for the condition.
Clostridium perfringens type-A
How does the vaccination against enteric colibacillosis function?
Prevents attachment of the bacterial fimbria/pili of E.coli
In addition to hypothermia, shivering, watery diarrhea and possibly vomiting, what can E.coli cause in piglets?
Stressed in lecture
Which disease causes recently weaned piglets to squeal abnormally when handled? It can also result in sudden death and neurological symptoms.
Edema Disease (Colibacillosis) - E.coli (certain serotypes)
Stressed in lecture
What is the source of infection for coccidiosis (Isospora suis) in piglets?
You treat a piglet for what you suspect is colibacilosis, but there is no response to the antibiotics you are giving. What disease is now your top differential? What is the treatment?
Tx: Toltrazuril (coccidiostat)
What form of viral diarrhea causes occasional vomiting in piglets?
What causes bright yellow feces and vomiting, often in older piglets?
Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
What is the main DDx for a piglet with swollen joints and abscesses?
What zoonotic disease causes septicemia, acute meningitis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, or bronchopneumonia in nursing or recently weaned piglets? Which disease that affects older pigs is also zoonotic?
- Streptococcus suis*
- Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae*
What are your top 2 DDx for a piglet presenting with CNS signs after weaning?
What syndrome usually occurs within 3 days of farrowing and is characterized by inadequate milk production?
MMA (Mastitis, Metritis, Agalactia)
What etiologic agent is the most common cause of mastitis in sows?
E.coli (Environmental bacteria)
What causes teat necrosis in young piglets and which teats are most commonly affected? How can this be prevented?
Endogenous estrogen (from sow or colostum) or exogenous (zearalenone) estrogen making the teats for vulnerable to trauma
Taping the teats shortly after birth
What disease causes dermatitis, characterized by 1-20 cm raised, red, ring-shaped lesions usually on the ventral abdomen, in pigs 4-12 weeks old? How is it treated?
No treatment required, resolves eventually and most recover completely
You notice a neonatal piglet with lateral extension of the hind legs with an inability to adduct the legs. What is the cause of this condition and what can be done to increase the likelihood of survival?
Myofibrillar hypoplasia (due to delayed development and degenerative change)
Can tie back legs together loosely
This is splay leg
Why must sows who persistently produce piglets with splay need need to be culled/removed from the breeding stock?
Because there is a genetic component to the disorder
What inherited condition is characterized by the absence of discrete areas of skin, usually over a part of the back, loin, thigh, or anterior surface of the tongue? What 2 conditions often accompany this?
Hydroureter and Hydronephrosis
What should you rule out when noticing umbilical bleeding in a group of piglets?
What age groups are most commonly affected by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
Growing or adult swine
Name 4 (or more) conditions that cause cyanosis in pigs.
African Swine Fever
Classical Swine Fever
Haemophilus parasuis (Glasser’s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
What aspect of erysipelas results in abortions in sows?
What are the 2 treatment options for erysipelas?
What is the etiologic agent for Greasy Pig Disease (Exudative epidermatitis)?
What condition causes brownish sports, 1-2cm in diameter, covered by serum and exudate in piglets <8 weeks old?
Greasy pig disease
aka Exudative dermatitis
What clinical signs are associated with swine dysentery? What is the etiologic agent?
Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (at first mucoid - gray to yellow), tail twitching or humped, gaunt appearance, dehydration
Marked inflammation of the large intestines
Most common in growing/finishing periods
What causes spirochaetal colitis? What age group is most commonly affected?
Causes mild colitis
What are the 2 main pathologies caused by salmonellosis? Which strain causes each type?
Septicemia - S. cholerasuis
Enterocolitis - S. typhimurium
How is Salmonellosis transmitted? What is the source of infection to humans?
Fecal-oral route or aerosols; Disseminated by rodents and wild birds
Asymptomatic swine harboring inapparent infections that become pork (human source of infection)
What does Lawsonia intracellularis cause in pigs?
Porcine Proliferative Enteritis
(Ileitis, intestinal adenomatosis)
Causes: Hyperplasia of crypt enterocytes with inflammaion +/- ulceration or hemorrhage
What are your 2 DDx for a pig that suddenly dies and is found to have blood in the intestinal tract?
Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
- Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae* is usually seen in ______ week old piglets. The bacterium secretes ___ exotoxins.
a. 6-20; 4
b. 1-4; 4
c. 30-40; 4
d. 1-4; 6
e. 6-20; 6
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is usually seen in 6-20 week old piglets. The bacterium secretes 4 exotoxins.
a. 6-20; 4
Exotoxins: Apxl - ApxIV
What clinical signs are associated with APP (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae)?
Sudden death (most common in acute outbreaks)
What causes Atrophic Rhinitis (Progressive Atrophic Rhinitis)?
Toxigenic strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocide
(Primarily Type D)
You notice “dirty” hair below the canthus of a pig’s eye, as well as a nose bleed, and slight dorsal deviation of the snout. What is your top DDx?
T/F: Glasser’s Disease (Haemophilus parasuis) is widely distributed and usually causes no disease.
What 4 maladies characterize acute Glasser’s disease?
Bacterial pneumonia (contributes to)
What widespread, chronic respiratory disease of swine potentiates other infections?
aka Enzootic Pneumonia
What is the rapidly spreading viral disease characterized sudden onset of fever, occulonasal dscharge, prostration and weakness, followed by paroxysmal coughing for 5-7 days?
Subtype H1N1 common in USA
A sow that is getting close to being ready to be bred has recently gained a lot of weight (without becoming overconditioned) and is now walking abnormally. Radiographic lesions can be seen on the medial femoral condyle. What is the likely diagnosis and what is the treatment?
No tx, cull sow
A pig farmer has recently employed his super fail son-in-law to help him care for his pigs. He is in charge of cleaning and maintaining the water nipples in the barn. After hearing this, what problem might the farmer have in the near future?
Salt poisoning (due to water deprivation)
What disorder causes unique meningeal and cerebral perivascular cuffing by eosinophils in the brain?
What part of the GIT is affected by gastric ulcers in pigs?
Pars esophagea/ non-glandular stomach
What age of pigs are affected by whip worm? What is the species? What type of diarrhea does it cause and what other disease does it look similar to?
Feeder/finishers and mature swine
Mucoid or mucohemorrhagic diarrhea
Looks like swine dysentery (can also occur together)
How long after an infection with T.suis can eggs be detected in a fecal sample?
What virus causes PMWS (postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome)? Who is usually affected?
Porcine circovirus Type 2
Nursery and growing pigs
What other conditions/syndromes is PMWS associated with?
PDNS (porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome)
PRDC (porcine respiratory disease complex)
T/F: Nearly all herds in the USA are seropositive for porcine circovirus.
What can be done to reduce the severity and incidence of PMWS?
Vaccination against PCV-2
What is the most economically significant disease to affect US swine production since the eradication of classical swine fever?
PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome)
What syndrome in PRRS is more commonly seen in young, growing pigs and in naive finishing pigs and breeding stock?
What will happen to piglets born to a sow infected with PRRS while pregant?
Piglets will be viremic and persistently infected
Match the species with the type of host it is for FMD. Which of these shows the most clinical signs and which the least?
Shee/Goats = Maintenance -> Least CS
Pigs= Amplifier HOOF lesions are more severe than in cattle
Cattle= Indicator -> Most CS
Which of these species is not a carrier for FMD? In those that are carriers, where does the virus reside?
Which species remains a carrier for FMD for up to 2 years?
- 6-24 months*
- Sheep/Goats = 4-6 months*
What is the highly infectious, often fatal, disease of swine caused by a flavivirus (genus Pestivirus) that is characterized by fever, inappetence, weakness, erythematous lesions and severe leukopenia?
Classical Swine Fever
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of an ACUTE classical swine fever infection?
High fever (105F)
How is classical swine fever spread?
Which is more severe, Classical or African Swine Fever?
African Swine Fever
Which vesicular disease that may affect swine is found in marine animals off the coast of California?
San Miguel Sea Lion Virus (SMSLV)
Which disease, Vesicular Stomatitis or Swine Vesicular disease, is endemic in the Carolinas and Georgia? Which has never been in the USA?
VS -> Endemic to Carolinas, Georgia
Swine Vesicular Disease -> Never in US (Last outbreak in Italy 1995)
T/F: Porcine Epdemic Diarrhea is a coronavirus clinically similar to Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE). There is cross-protection between the two viruses which is why vaccination against TGE provides protection against PED.
False, there is NO CROSS-PROTECTION
Which virus may be inactivated by heating trailers to 160F for 10 minutes or by maintaining them at room temperature (68F) for at least 7 days?
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea
A sow gives birth to a litter of weak piglets that are largely devoid of hair and have mucinous edema over their enlarged foreparts. What nutritional deficiency do you suspect?
How is iodine deficiency avoided in gestating sows?
Adding iodized salt to the ration
Why is iron deficiency a problem in piglets (3 reasons)?
Born with little iron reserve
Colostrum and milk provide only 15-50% of daily iron requirement
Rapid growth and blood volume expension
How can iron deficiency be prevented and treated in piglets?
Give them access to iron-rich soil/clay
Orally administer water-soluble iron
Parenteral injection iron dextran (NOT INTO NECK MUSCLES beyond 7 days of age)
What is the zinc-responsive dermatosis usually observed in 2-4 month old swine?
What is the most common cause of zinc-responsive dermatosis in piglets?
Consumption of excess calcium
What are your 2 DDx for parakeratosis in 2-4 month old piglets?
Greasy Pig Disease
______ is a disease of growing bones while _______ is a lesion of mature bones.
What are some causes of Rickets?
Dietary deficiency of vitamin D or phosphorous
Confinement resulting in no access to sunlight (Vit D)
No grain or protein in diet (Phos)
A highly prolific sow begins developing fractures in the latter part of nursing. What disorder do you suspect? What is the most important etiological factor?
Inappropriate ration formulation or mixing
Another cause = lack of exercise
What can feeds high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, copper, or vitamin A result in? What is another cause of this?
Vitamine E deficiency
What 3 syndromes does Vitamin E/Selenum deficiency cause?
Mulberry Heart Disease
Hepatosis Dietetica (HD)
White Muscle Disease
How are nursing piglets exposed to aflatoxins?
Ingestion of toxin by lactating dam (passed in milk)
Does acute or chronic aflatoxicosis cause ascites? Which causes icterus?
Subacute-Chronic -> Ascites
Acute -> Icterus
T/F: Chronic aflatoxicosis can occur at levels as low as 300 ppb while acute toxicity usually occurs at levels greater than 1000ppb.
What does infection of Claviceps purpurea cause in pigs (clinical signs and name of condition)? Which body parts are most commonly affected?
Ischemic necrosis followed by dry, gangrenous sloughing of parts of extremities; Inhibition of mammary development, reduced litter size and birth weights as well as post-farrowing agalactia
Tails, ears, hooves
What are the 3 components of fumonisin toxicosis? What does each toxin cause?
T-2 toxin - crusting and ulceration
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) - vomiting
Zearalenone (F-2) - estrogenic effect (tenesumus, rectal prolapse, persisgtent anestrus, pseudopregancy, decreased libido, decreased testicular size, preputial enlargement)
How are very young piglets exposed to fumonisin toxicosis?
Via sow’s milk