Flashcards in T-1: Functions of Blood Deck (97):
Root: Heme ?
Root: Hemo ?
The study of
In excess of, (or), The condition of
Condition of blood
Reduction in # of
Many blood cells with different sizes
Blood cell production
Refers to plasma minus its clotting factors
Erythropoiesis takes place where?
Red bone marrow
#1 site of stem cell production in adults?
How are RBC's affected by aging?
Red marrow is replaced by yellow marrow. Older adults lose reserves
Granulocytes include which cells?
Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils
Lymphocytes and monocytes
when oxygen is attached to the iron on the hemoglobin
Normal value of Erythrocytes (RBCs)?
Normal value of Hemoglobin (Hgb)?
Normal value of Hematocrit (Hct)?
The entire CBC is suppressed: Decreased RBC, Decreased WBC, Decreased Platelets.
Total WBCs Count value for the differential?
A WBC count of (>30,000) indicates?
Leukocytosis, Severe infection
A WBC count of (100,000- +) indicates?
Leukemia, organ failure, malignancy's
Lab Value Range: Neutrophil?
3,000-7,500 or 50-70%
Mature Neutrophils are called?
Immature Neutrophils are called? Range?
Bands or Rods, 0-8
Increased Neutrophils indicate?
infection or tissue injury
Function of Eosinophils?
Defend against parasitic infections
Range of Eosinophils?
Range of Basophils?
0-2% or 0-150
Function of Basophils?
Chemical mediators, e.g. heparin/serotonin/histamine
Range of Lymphocytes?
20-40% or 1-4,000
Range of Monocytes?
0-8% or 0-600
Main function of Lymphocytes?
Cellular and humoral immune responses
Function of Monocytes?
Ingest large and small matter. move into tissue and become Macrophages.
Normal range of Lymphocytes?
1-4,000 or 20-40%
Increased Lymphocytes could indicate?
Bacterial/Viral Infection, Leukemia of bone marrow, or radiation therapy.
Decreased lymphocytes could indicate?
Immune disorders e.g. lupus, AIDS
Normal range of Thrombocytes?
Thrombocyte range of
Thrombocytopenia indicates that bleeding may occur.
Assess for petechiae and bruising
The condition of having a Thrombocyte value of >400,000 is called? when might a patient experience this?
Thrombocytosis. This occur with inflammation and some malignant disorders.
A state of equilibrium
Overdose treatment of Heparin?
Overdose treatment of warfarin (Coumadin)?
Control Range: aPTT?
Labs to consider when giving Heparin?
What does aPTT assess?
The intrinsic coagulation by measuring factors I,II,V,VIII,IX,XI,XII.
How does Heparin work? how is usually administered?
It prolongs bleeding time by putting a negative charge on the surface of platelets which inhibit the clumping action. Produces rapid onset via Subq or IV
Labs to consider when giving warfarin (Coumadin)?
PT and INR
What does PT (Prothrombin Time) assess?
assessment of the extrinsic coagulation by measurement of factors I,II,V,VII,X.
Control Range: PT?
Control Range: INR?
How does warfarin (Coumadin) work?
Inhibits the hepatic synthesis of coagulation, however, slow acting 2-3 days to reach therapeutic levels.
Growth factors facilitate?
Regrowth of new tissues
Increased Thrombin Time indicates?
Coagulation is inadequate secondary to decreased thrombin activity.
Define the MPV (Mean Platelet Value)?
Measures the average amount of platelets by using a blood smear to asses the number size and shape of RBC, WBC, Platelets.
Ideal range of the MPV?
coughing up blood
Define a neutrophil value of
Overt Bleeds refer to?
Bleeding that is visible to the patient and clinician.
Covert Bleeds refer to?
Bleeding that's internal and not obvious
Therapeutic Range of aPTT?
1.5-2.0 (times) Control= Therapeutic range
Therapeutic Range of INR?
Therapeutic range of PT?
1.5-2.0 (times) Control= Therapeutic range
Prolonged aPTT and PT indicates?
Problems on both side of the clotting cascade or in the common pathway.
The Onset and duration of heparin?
Onset- 0-20mins Duration- 24hrs and under
The onset and duration of warfarin?
Onset- 2-7days, Duration-3-5days
d-Dimer Test measures?
An accurate assessment if a blood clot is breaking down.. A negative means no clot.
How do antiplatelet drugs work?
They interfere with platelet aggregation preventing clot formation within the arteries.
Anticoagulants work by?
Prevent thrombi from forming or growing larger. *under careful watch of therapeutic levels.
Thrombolytics have the job of?
Clot destruction. the dissolve the insoluble fibrin.
A Peripheral smear test for?
Morphology of the cells: This is how they get the indices. The cells shape, and size.
The theory behind the ESR?
That the heavier cells sink towards the bottom. Infected cells weigh more therefore, and Increased number reflects Inflammation or infection.
When should a oral iron supplement be taken?
1 hour before meals
What enhances the absorption of iron?
ascorbic acid (Orange juice)
The Universal recipient of blood is which blood type?
The Universal Donor of blood is which type?
A person receiving blood who is Rh- can receive what type of blood?
Only Rh- Blood
If My patient were AB- what blood types can they receive?
O-, B-, A-, AB-
If my patient were B+ what blood types can they receive?
O-, O+, B-, B+
The most important interventions for hanging blood include? (5 things)
1. Infuse with only normal saline.
2. Stay with patient for the first 15 minutes checking V.S. q 5minutes.
3. Infuse blood 2-4 hours no longer than 4 hours.
4. Time from blood bank to infusion 30minutes or less.
5. 2 RN's have to identify the patient and sign the paperwork.
If a reaction takes place during a blood transfusion what are the first 4 steps of action?
1. Stop the infusion
2. Keep the normal Saline Running
3. Notify doctor STAT
4. Take down blood/tubing/gather paperwork and send it back to blood bank for analysis.
Define: Macrocytic RBC?
Large RBC, normal in color, fragile, have less hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
Define: Microcytic hypochromic?
Tiny, pale cells
What does hemoglobin measure?
The gas carrying capacity of RBC values are measured from the peripheral blood (Veins)
What does Hematocrit measure?
Represents the percentage of RBCs compared with the total blood volume.
This anemia is caused by lack of Intrinsic factor which is required for absorption of cobalamin
This condition is d/t decreased intake of B12 and I might see what on assessment?
B12 deficiency anemia
Red swollen tongue.
This anemia is seen in women who are of child bearing age?
Iron deficiency anemia
Glossitis and pallor
This type of anemia contributes to neural tube defects
Folic acid deficiency