T-1: Functions of Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T-1: Functions of Blood Deck (97):
1

Root: Heme ?

Iron

2

Root: Hemo ?

Blood

3

Root: ology?

The study of

4

Root: osis

In excess of, (or), The condition of

5

Root: emia

Condition of blood

6

Root: cyte

Cell

7

Root: Chromo?

Color

8

Root: Erythro?

Red

9

Leuko means?

White

10

Meaning? Poiesis

Creation of

11

Meaning? Blast

Large Immature

12

Meaning? Penia

Reduction in # of

13

Meaning? poikilocytosis

Many blood cells with different sizes

14

Define: hematopoiesis

Blood cell production

15

Define: Serum

Refers to plasma minus its clotting factors

16

Erythropoiesis takes place where?

Red bone marrow

17

#1 site of stem cell production in adults?

pelvic bones

18

How are RBC's affected by aging?

Red marrow is replaced by yellow marrow. Older adults lose reserves

19

Define- reticulocyte?

Immature erythrocyte

20

Granulocytes include which cells?

Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils

21

Agranulocytes include?

Lymphocytes and monocytes

22

Define: oxyhemoglobin

when oxygen is attached to the iron on the hemoglobin

23

Normal value of Erythrocytes (RBCs)?

4-6

24

Normal value of Hemoglobin (Hgb)?

12-18

25

Normal value of Hematocrit (Hct)?

35-50

26

Pancytopenia?

The entire CBC is suppressed: Decreased RBC, Decreased WBC, Decreased Platelets.

27

Total WBCs Count value for the differential?

4,000-11,000

28

A WBC count of (>30,000) indicates?

Leukocytosis, Severe infection

29

A WBC count of (100,000- +) indicates?

Leukemia, organ failure, malignancy's

30

Lab Value Range: Neutrophil?

3,000-7,500 or 50-70%

31

Mature Neutrophils are called?

Segs

32

Immature Neutrophils are called? Range?

Bands or Rods, 0-8

33

Increased Neutrophils indicate?

infection or tissue injury

34

Function of Eosinophils?

Defend against parasitic infections

35

Range of Eosinophils?

0-4%

36

Range of Basophils?

0-2% or 0-150

37

Function of Basophils?

Chemical mediators, e.g. heparin/serotonin/histamine

38

Range of Lymphocytes?

20-40% or 1-4,000

39

Range of Monocytes?

0-8% or 0-600

40

Main function of Lymphocytes?

Cellular and humoral immune responses

41

Function of Monocytes?

Ingest large and small matter. move into tissue and become Macrophages.

42

Normal range of Lymphocytes?

1-4,000 or 20-40%

43

Increased Lymphocytes could indicate?

Bacterial/Viral Infection, Leukemia of bone marrow, or radiation therapy.

44

Decreased lymphocytes could indicate?

Immune disorders e.g. lupus, AIDS

45

Normal range of Thrombocytes?

150,000-400,000

46

Thrombocyte range of

Thrombocytopenia indicates that bleeding may occur.
Assess for petechiae and bruising

47

The condition of having a Thrombocyte value of >400,000 is called? when might a patient experience this?

Thrombocytosis. This occur with inflammation and some malignant disorders.

48

Define Stasis?

A state of equilibrium

49

Overdose treatment of Heparin?

protamine sulfate

50

Overdose treatment of warfarin (Coumadin)?

Vitamin K

51

Control Range: aPTT?

25-35 seconds

52

Labs to consider when giving Heparin?

aPTT

53

What does aPTT assess?

The intrinsic coagulation by measuring factors I,II,V,VIII,IX,XI,XII.

54

How does Heparin work? how is usually administered?

It prolongs bleeding time by putting a negative charge on the surface of platelets which inhibit the clumping action. Produces rapid onset via Subq or IV

55

Labs to consider when giving warfarin (Coumadin)?

PT and INR

56

What does PT (Prothrombin Time) assess?

assessment of the extrinsic coagulation by measurement of factors I,II,V,VII,X.

57

Control Range: PT?

11-16 seconds.

58

Control Range: INR?

2-3

59

How does warfarin (Coumadin) work?

Inhibits the hepatic synthesis of coagulation, however, slow acting 2-3 days to reach therapeutic levels.

60

Growth factors facilitate?

Regrowth of new tissues

61

Increased Thrombin Time indicates?

Coagulation is inadequate secondary to decreased thrombin activity.

62

Define the MPV (Mean Platelet Value)?

Measures the average amount of platelets by using a blood smear to asses the number size and shape of RBC, WBC, Platelets.

63

Ideal range of the MPV?

250,000

64

Hemoptysis?

coughing up blood

65

Define a neutrophil value of

Neutropenia

66

Overt Bleeds refer to?

Bleeding that is visible to the patient and clinician.

67

Covert Bleeds refer to?

Bleeding that's internal and not obvious

68

Therapeutic Range of aPTT?

1.5-2.0 (times) Control= Therapeutic range

69

Therapeutic Range of INR?

2-3

70

Therapeutic range of PT?

1.5-2.0 (times) Control= Therapeutic range

71

Prolonged aPTT and PT indicates?

Problems on both side of the clotting cascade or in the common pathway.

72

The Onset and duration of heparin?

Onset- 0-20mins Duration- 24hrs and under

73

The onset and duration of warfarin?

Onset- 2-7days, Duration-3-5days

74

d-Dimer Test measures?

An accurate assessment if a blood clot is breaking down.. A negative means no clot.

75

How do antiplatelet drugs work?

They interfere with platelet aggregation preventing clot formation within the arteries.

76

Anticoagulants work by?

Prevent thrombi from forming or growing larger. *under careful watch of therapeutic levels.

77

Thrombolytics have the job of?

Clot destruction. the dissolve the insoluble fibrin.

78

A Peripheral smear test for?

Morphology of the cells: This is how they get the indices. The cells shape, and size.

79

The theory behind the ESR?

That the heavier cells sink towards the bottom. Infected cells weigh more therefore, and Increased number reflects Inflammation or infection.

80

When should a oral iron supplement be taken?

1 hour before meals

81

What enhances the absorption of iron?

ascorbic acid (Orange juice)

82

The Universal recipient of blood is which blood type?

AB+

83

The Universal Donor of blood is which type?

O-

84

A person receiving blood who is Rh- can receive what type of blood?

Only Rh- Blood

85

If My patient were AB- what blood types can they receive?

O-, B-, A-, AB-

86

If my patient were B+ what blood types can they receive?

O-, O+, B-, B+

87

The most important interventions for hanging blood include? (5 things)

1. Infuse with only normal saline.
2. Stay with patient for the first 15 minutes checking V.S. q 5minutes.
3. Infuse blood 2-4 hours no longer than 4 hours.
4. Time from blood bank to infusion 30minutes or less.
5. 2 RN's have to identify the patient and sign the paperwork.

88

If a reaction takes place during a blood transfusion what are the first 4 steps of action?

1. Stop the infusion
2. Keep the normal Saline Running
3. Notify doctor STAT
4. Take down blood/tubing/gather paperwork and send it back to blood bank for analysis.

89

Define: Macrocytic RBC?

Large RBC, normal in color, fragile, have less hemoglobin to carry oxygen.

90

Define: Microcytic hypochromic?

Tiny, pale cells

91

What does hemoglobin measure?

The gas carrying capacity of RBC values are measured from the peripheral blood (Veins)

92

What does Hematocrit measure?

Represents the percentage of RBCs compared with the total blood volume.

93

This anemia is caused by lack of Intrinsic factor which is required for absorption of cobalamin

Pernicious anemia

94

This condition is d/t decreased intake of B12 and I might see what on assessment?

B12 deficiency anemia
Red swollen tongue.

95

This anemia is seen in women who are of child bearing age?
Assessment reveals?

Iron deficiency anemia
Glossitis and pallor
Cheilitis
Decreased Ferritin

96

This type of anemia contributes to neural tube defects

Folic acid deficiency

97

This is a serious bleeding and thrombotic disorder that results from abnormally initiated and accelerated clotting .
The body loses ability to clot.

DIC or Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Most often seen in sepsis patient or organ failure.