Elevated serum sodium
Molecules moving from High to low concentration without need for energy.
Unique to patients with third spacing is their hydration status. How so?
They are usually fluid depleted.
What is the function of ANF and BNP, and how do they work?
Diuresis of Na+ and water. They suppress renin and aldosterone, and cause vasodilation.
Patients with fluid Excess: Labs for BUN?, Hematocrit?, Na?, K?
BUN-Decreased, Hematocrit-Decreased, Na-Elevated, K-Decreased
Extracellular area referes to???
The area outside the cells and is composed to 2 sub groups: 1.Interstitial fluid, 2. Intravascular space.
Central Diabetes Insipidus?
A disorder of the hypothalamus. Either not producing ADH or The pituitary is not receiving the message to release ADH.
Large molecules that use a transport protein to move from High to Low concentration. No energy required.
Describe how a hypertonic solution works?
Its draws fluid into the vascular space (Blood Vessels)
The movement of molecules that move from Low to high concentration. Needs energy
S/S of Fluid Volume deficit?
Decreased BP Pulse= Thready Increased HR
Osmotic Pressure or Oncotic pressure is defined as?
The force created by plasma proteins in the vascular system that pulls fluid from the interstitial space.
S/S of fluid overload include?
Bounding pulses, increased BP, Tachycardia,
Most important vials to asses with p/t with Fluid excess are?
RR/ BP/ P
Transcellular fluid is?
Fluid contained within specialized cavities of the body that don't circulate.
A Liquid with dissolved solutes E.g. Water(solvent) with urea dissolved in it.
Name the disease: Disorder of decreased ADH, causing Polyuria, polydipsia?
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)?
Would Diabetes insipidus cause what type of urine?
Dilute urine, Low specific gravity
Low serum sodium
If GFR is above 60 what does that indicate?
Diluted urine indicated by specific gravity is?
Third spacing means?
Fluid has accumulated in cavities of the body not easily exchanged with the rest of the body.
Excess of Free Water volume causes?
If GFR is below 60 what does that indicate?
Giving to much of a hypertonic solution can be deadly, what the first symptom we look for?
Resp problems, fluids fills lungs, SOB, Later Brain issues seen. Water leaves the brain cells (causing herniation)
Insensible fluid loss, defined as?
Fluids lost from the body that can't be measured
The normal osmolarity of Isotonic solutions?
Treatment for fluid excess includes?
Diuretics, angiotensin 2 blockers, ACE inhibitors, IandO,
When is ANF and BNP released into circulation?
When fluid is increased
The fluid in the spaces between the cells or around tissues is called?
Stress on the body do what to fluid?
Concentrated urine indicated by specific gravity is?
Force exerted on the vessel walls by fluid flowing through them. The major force that pushes water out of the vascular system and into the interstitial space.
First Spacing refers to?
Normal fluid in the ICF and ECF
BNP test are most often ordered, what is it a good indicator of?
Second spacing describes?
Abnormal amount of fluid in interstitial space E.g. Edema
Extracellular fluid volume deficit
How long can a IV bag remain up and running before needing change?
When giving a hypotonic solution whats the 1st sign that indicates a problem?
Altered LOC, Lethargy, Headaches
Extracellular fluid volume excess
How does fluid move when a hypotonic solution is given?
Leaves the blood vessel and fills the interstitial space then enters the cells.
A substance dissolved into a solution. E.g. Sodium(solute) is dissolved into water).
The intracellular area includes?
The area within the cells
The Fluid within the blood vessels is termed?
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?
The kidneys have lost sensitivity to ADH
Treatment for Fluid volume deficit?
IV fluids on 0.9% NS