T-3: Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

Nursing 25 Mrs P > T-3: Electrolytes > Flashcards

Flashcards in T-3: Electrolytes Deck (31):
1

Normal Range Sodium?

135-145

2

Normal Range Potassium?

3.5-5.0

3

Normal Range Magnesium?

1.5-2.5

4

Normal Range Calcium?

9-11

5

Normal Range Phosphate?

2.8-4.5

6

The Function of Sodium?

1. The main regulator of water and its distribution.
2.The conduction of nerve impulses

7

The Function of Potassium?

1.Controls Skeletal, cardiac, and neuromuscular Transmission.

8

The Function of magnesium?

1.Supresses or increases neuromuscular irritability, nerve and heart function

9

The 5 Functions of Calcium?

1.Teeth and bone formation.
2.Formation of blood clots.
3.Necessary for transmission of nerve impulses
4.Regulation of Blood pressure
5.Necessary for contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle.

10

The Function of phosphate?

1.Necessary for the function of muscle
2.Necessary for the formation of RBC's, ATP, DNA, and RNA

11

Stupor?

a state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility.

12

Orthostatic Hypotension

Orthostatic (postural) hypotension is an excessive fall in BP when an upright position is assumed.

13

Oliguria?

Oliguria is urine output 500 mL in 24 h in an adult

14

Anuria?

failure of the kidneys to produce urine.

15

The S/S of Hypernatremia? SALT

"Salt"
"S"-Skin flushed, Tongue Dry, Thirst
"A"- Agitation, hallucinations, delusions, coma, Muscle twitches, irregular muscle contractions, Diminished DTR
"L"- Low fever, dyspnea, Edema
"T"-Tachycardia, HTN, High Specific gravity

16

Treatment of Hypernatremia?

Removing the Sodium at a very slow rate, Starting seizure precautions, Sodium Free IV, Lasix, I&O, Vitals

17

A client with hypoparathyroidism complains of numbness and tingling in his fingers and around the mouth. The nurse would assess for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypocalcemia
Hypoparathyroidism can cause low serum calcium levels. Numbness and tingling in extremities and in the circumoral area around the mouth are the hallmark signs of hypocalcemia. Normal calcium level is 9 to 11 mg/dl.

18

The nurse evaluates which of the following clients to be at risk for developing hypernatremia?

A. 50-year-old with pneumonia, diaphoresis, and high fevers
Diaphoresis and a high fever can lead to free water loss through the skin, resulting in hypernatremia. Loop diuretics are more likely to result in a hypovolemic hyponatremia. Diarrhea and vomiting cause both sodium and water losses. Clients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have hyponatremia, due to increased water reabsorption in the renal tubules.

19

A client is admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis who, with treatment, has a normal blood glucose, pH, and serum osmolality. During assessment, the client complains of weakness in the legs. Which of the following is a priority nursing intervention?
A. Request a physical therapy consult from the physician
B. Ensure the client is safe from falls and check the most recent potassium level()
C. Allow uninterrupted rest periods throughout the day
D. Encourage the client to increase intake of dairy products and green leafy vegetables.

B. Ensure the client is safe from falls and check the most recent potassium level
In the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, the blood sugar is lowered, the pH is corrected, and potassium moves back into the cells, resulting in low serum potassium. Client safety and the correction of low potassium levels are a priority. The weakness in the legs is a clinical manifestation of the hypokalemia. Dairy products and green, leafy vegetables are a source of calcium.

20

A client with a potassium level of 5.5 mEq/L is to receive sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) orally. After administering the drug, the priority nursing action is to monitor

Bowel movements.

21

The nurse is caring for a client who has been in good health up to the present and is admitted with cellulitis of the hand. The client's serum potassium level was 4.5 mEq/L yesterday. Today the level is 7 mEq/L. Which of the following is the next appropriate nursing action?

Question the results and redraw the specimen

22

A client is receiving an intravenous magnesium infusion to correct a serum level of 1.4 mEq/L. Which of the following assessments would alert the nurse to immediately stop the infusion?
A. Absent patellar reflex()
B. Diarrhea
C. Premature ventricular contractions
D. Increase in blood pressure

A. Absent patellar reflex

23

Define Clonus and in what condition would you normally see it in?

It refers to muscle twitching seen when DTR's are extremely excitable (+4)

24

"SALT LOSS" Define

SALT
S- Stupor, coma
A- Anorexia
L- Lethargy
T-DTR Decreased

LOSS
L- Limp muscles, O- Orthostatic hypotension, S- Seizures/headaches, S- Stomach cramping

25

S/S of Hyperkalemia?

Tall T waves
Absent P waves
(muscle weakness, respiratory distress, hyper or flaccid reflexes)

26

Tx for Hyperkalemia?

Give Sodium polystyrene sulfonate with sorbital
Insulin with glucose
NaHCO3
Dialysis with renal failure
Kaexylate

27

S/S of Hypokalemia?

Drop in the T wave
Absent P wave
Appearance of the U wave
(Arrhythmia, tachycardia, thready pulse, leg cramps)

28

Who does Potassium (K+) hate?

Sodium and calcium

29

Tx: Hypokalemia?

5-10 mEq K VERY SLOW
Oral supplements
Never IM subs or IVP

30

Who does Potassium Love?

Magnesium

31

Ataxia?

the loss of full control of bodily movements.