T-1 Nature of Energy Flashcards Preview

Wenger - AP Chemistry > T-1 Nature of Energy > Flashcards

Flashcards in T-1 Nature of Energy Deck (41):
1

Describe how energy is stored within a chemical system

1. In the motion of the particles within the system

2. In the position of particles that are attracted to or repelled from each other (Intermolecular attractions)

3. In the positions of the atoms/ions within a chemical species (intramolecular attractions - chemical bonds) 

2

What is chemical energy?

Energy stored in the positions of the atoms/ions within a chemical species (intramolecular attractions - chemical bonds) 

3

What is thermal energy?

Energy stored in the motion of the particles within the system

 

4

What is phase energy?

Energy stored in the position of particles that are attracted to or repelled from each other (Intermolecular attractions)

 

5

What factors impact the amount of energy stored in a system, thermally - thermal energy?

1) average velocity of the particles - temperature

2) Number of particles in the system - mass

 

 

6

What factors impact the amount of phase energy stored in a system?

1) Strength of interaction between the particles - some constant

2) Number of particles in the system - mass

 

 

7

What factors impact the amount of chemical energy stored in a system?

1) Strength of interactions within the molecules - some set of constants

2) Number of particles in the system - mass

 

 

8

List three way to transfer energy into or out of a system

1.  Heating (heat)

2.  Working (work)

3.  Radiating

9

Describe the process of heating.

Fast moving particles collide with slow moving particles.  Slow moving particles speed up while fast moving particles slow down.  This continues throughout the substance until themal equilibrium is reached.

10

Describe the conditions that must be met in order for heating to occur. 

There must be a difference in temperature

11

What is thermal equilibrium?

Temperature of two substances/regions is the same.  At this point there is no net trasnfer of energy through heating.

12

What type of work will we consider in chemistry?

Expansion or contraction of a gas at constant pressure.

13

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A + B → C + energy

Exothermic

14

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A + B + energy → C

Endothermic

15

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A + B → C          delta H is positive

Endothermic

16

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A + B → C          delta H is negative

Exothermic

17

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Surroundings grow warm during the process

Exothermic

18

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Surroundings cool during the process

Endothermic

19

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Energy is brought into the system from the surroundings

Endothermic

20

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Energy is released from the system to the surroundings

Exothermic

21

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Energy is released from the system to the surroundings

Exothermic

22

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A gas expands at a constant pressure

Exothermic

23

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A gas contracts at a constant pressure

Endothermic

24

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A gas expands at a constant pressure

Exothermic

25

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- A gold bar melts

Endothermic

26

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Sweat evaporates

Endothermic

27

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- Water freezes

Exothermic

28

Is the following process exothermic or endothermic

- steam condenses 

Exothermic

29

Heat of Solution

Enthalpy change associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent at a constant pressure

30

Heat of Vaporization

Energy required to change a certain amount of a liquid into a gas.

31

Heat of Fusion

Energy required to change certain amount of a solid into a liquid 

32

Specific heat capacity

Amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celcius

33

molar heat capacity

Amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1 degree Celcius

34

Enthalpy change associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent at a constant pressure

Heat of Solution

35

Energy required to change a certain amount of a liquid into a gas.

Heat of Vaporization

36

Energy required to change certain amount of a solid into a liquid 

Heat of Fusion

37

Amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celcius

Specific heat capacity

38

Amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1 degree Celcius

molar heat capacity

39

Equation for work of gaseous expansion or contraction

w = -P•(Vf-Vi) where P is atmospheric pressure in atm

40

Equation for heating that occurs when a substance changes temperature

q = m•c•(Tf-Ti)  where c is specific heat capacity of the substance

41

Equation for the heating that occurs during a phase change

q = m•Hphase change  where Hphase change is Hvap, Hfus, Hsub, etc...