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Flashcards in T2 - Evolution of International Society Deck (31):

Internatioanl Society?

-Any association of political communities (States) that accept:
>Common rules
>International Law

-Society can only live by common agenda.


International Society is the concept of which school of IR?

-The English School Approach to the IR has pioneered the term International Society.
(Also called liberal Realist)

-They have eloborated Intl Society by taking the model of European states relation.


How Hedley Bull eloborates International Society?

-A society of states come into existence when
>a group of states, concious of common interest and values,
>form a soceity in the sense that
>they concieve themselves bound by a common set of rules in their relation,
>and share in the working of common institutions.


Hedley Bull contribution in the development of historical narrative and theoritical perspective of English School Approach.

-Hedley Bull contributed and termed International anarchy,
>meaning that there exists no overarching authority over and above the states.


Criticism on Hedley Bull contribution in the development of historical narrative and theoritical perspective of English School Approach.

-Historical narrative and theoritical perspective of English School has been severly criticised on the account that
>they legitimize an oppressive and exploitative colonial and imperial order.


International System acc to realism?

-Acc to Thomas Hobbes
>Intl system created by states
>which are like billard balls on the table of intl arena
>they participate in the game of survival on this intl arena



International System acc Hedley Bull?

-A system of states (Intl System) formed when
>two or more states have sufficient contact between them, and
>have sufficient impact on one another's decisions,
>to cause them behave as parts of a whole.


Core of English school eloboration of IR?

-Particular strand of IR theory maintains that
>There is a society of states at international level,
>Despite the condition of anarchy (Nonavailability of world govt)
=nor there is world govt, niether international justice system and there is no policing.
=states are soverign, they grant nothing above them
>they take themselves as superior entity
=In anarchy, world states creates intl society in reason to cooperate with each other
(e.g) through UN states interact

+English School of IR also known as
-liberal Realist
-British institutionalist=


A society, acc to English School, founded on which principle?

-Soverign equality V.s Non intervention
>all stand equal and should respect each other soverignity
>and not liable to interfere in each other's matter
(e.g) UN law of sea, Law of Border, Rule of Diplomacy; institutions which have helped in creating intl society.


How the contemporary system of states can be called an international system?

-It can called coz
>over the past several centuries most of the forms of interaction b/w states have
>become regulated by laws, norms and institutions.

-Significant Rules are:
>The non use of force.
>Respect for the soverignity of other
>non interference in their internal affairs
>respect territorial integrity
>de-legitimization of the right to conquest
>trade laws
>Respect for human rights


The society of states is analogous to a ___

-Analogouos to a Club:
>members who wish to join must demonstrate respect for its rules.
>Those who breaks them are subject to censure, sanctions and other forms of ostracism.


Development of historical narrative of international society's association?

-Development of historical narrative of international society's association is with:
>the emergence of the Eurpean Nation State system
>after the treaty of Westphalia in 1648
>European states formed an association of states referred to as a "Family of nations".
>This family of nations has culminated in the contemporary international system,
>it becomes analogous to a club.
>societies which are outside of this club are deemed as uncivilized.


Early international societies?

-This idea not only restricted to Europe, it was always presents throughout the history
>free from time and space
>even in the time of Empires, this idea exists.


Early international societies In Ancient world?

-Early form of diplomacy and treatise existed in the ancient world:
>most notable example of intl society is form 700 BCE to
>the beiggining of Roman Era in the first centuary BCE


Early international societies In Ancient world?

-The city states shared a common language and religion together
>institutions like the Olympic Games and the Delphic Oracle were designed to emphazise that unity.

-All city states placed high value on their independence,
>which enabled them to unite against the threat of Persian hegemony


Early international societies In Ancient world?

-Rome, when it was a republic, deal with its rival states on the basis of equality
-it acknowledged the set of norms know as ius gentium (law of nations).


Early international societies In Ancient world?
(Christianity as an order)

-Rome divided in 395 AD
>into eastern and western empires

-The Byzantine Empire (eastern), based at constantinople, survived and flourished
>but rising power of islam overthrew it in 1463.

-In west, papacy claimed to have inherited Rome's supranational authority over
>the complex structure of sub-national, transnational and national entities that
>coexisted in medieval europe.

-The church constructed a legal order
>comprising a system of sanctions
>the use of arbitration
>formal legal hearings
>and numerous laws called CANON lAW that laid down by papal pronouncements.


Contribution of Ancient World's Societies?

-All ancient societies formulated sets of moral and ethical principles
>relating to war which entered the intl discourse
>and are still relevent today
>they also influenced later attempt to devise international conventions aimed at limiting the horror of war.


Rise of Islamic order?

-Islam had profound implications for international politics
>even Muslims were oblidged to observe various moral principles.

-Due to internal breakdown of internal unity (Shia Sunni)
>islamic world accept to exist peacefully with unbelivers

-The two abodes ( Dar ul Harb and Dar ul Islam) developed commercial trade links.


Muslim-Chrisitian embracement example?

-Treaty of 1535
> king sultan sulayman of ottoman empire aligned with Francis I, king of france,
>against the Hapsburg Empire, powerful christian force of the time.


Which two corollaries related to rise of the state system contributed in the emergence of Modern International society?

-The state is an independent sovereign actor and enjoys legal supermacy over all non state actors,
>the status of the state give rise to the two logical corollaries:

>the legal equality of all states

>The principle of non intervention by outside forces in the domestic affairs of states.

{the emergence of modern state was the key development}


Emergence of Modern International society?
a. (Peace of Westphalia)

-Peace of westphalia (1648) at the end of thirty year of war (1618-1648)
>hallmark in the contemporary international system
>Treaty estab right of German states to have their own diplomatic relations
>acknowledge their own sovereignty,
>Treaty accepted the sovereign equality of multiple state.
>The peace of westphalia has been seen as the very idea of a society of states.


Emergence of Modern International society?
b. (Treaty of Utrecht)

-Treaty of Utrecht of 1713
>incorparated the principle of balance of power formally
>which ended the war of spanish succession (1701-14)
>When a Just equillibrium of power was formally declared to be
>the best and most solid basis of mutual friendship and durable harmony.


Emergence of Modern International society?
b. (from 1648-1776)

-Some powers declined and other rose,
>Ottoman declined
>Britian and Russia rose

-core elements among all the players were to preserve
>their freedom
>mutual recognition of each others righ of existence
>reliance on the balance of power.


Emergence of Modern International society?
c. (American and French Revolution)

-Both revolutions had profound consequences for intl society,
>USA, emerged as global superpower in 20th centuary

-French revolution
>made it clear that "sovereignty" vested in the "nation" rather than the rulers.
>which gave the idea of "national self determination".
>this idea dominated national and international politics in 19th and 20th cent


Emergence of Modern International society?
d. (concert of Europe)

-Concert of Europe after the defear of .
Napolean, a new concept:
>estab by great powers
>where they set themselves apart from the smaller powers.
>It was characterised by regular meetings to maintain BOP in Europe and
>to take collective action on various issues.

-The concert marked headway towards a more managed, hirarchichal system
>this affected all three institutional benchmarks of the westphalian international society which were
+The BOP +diplomacy and Intl Law.

-Under the cover of the Concert of Europe,
>The European Powers legitimized their domination of Asia and Africa.
>system lasted until WW1.


Emergence of Modern International society?
b. (The First World War)

-Bought an end to Concert of Europe and new powers appeared on world map
>US and Japan

-Movements of liberation started in diff part of Asia and other parts of Eu empire

-Establilshment of League of Nation was the first attempt to estab a
>formal organizational foundation for Intl society, enshrined all key rules within it
>League estab the principle of collective security instead of BOP
>Membership of League was worldwide

-Estab of league was an attempt to construct a highly organized Intl society
>capable of bringing order across a whole range of issues.


Emergence of Modern International society?
b. (WW2)

-the international system was based on
>Priniciple of sovereignty and
>balance of power

-but the post WW1 period
>a serious imbalance of power due to extremist ideologies pursued by
>the great European Powers
>together with the US policy of iosUlation that resulted in the WW2.


How the International Society Became Global?

-US was determined not to repeat its mistake in post WW2 scnerio
> by not joining UNO

-However, UNO unable to play leading role envisioned in the post WW2 scnerio I.S
>owing to the cold war.

-The cold war itself reflected
>the two anthesis hegemonial international societies.
>though the BOP b/w two superpowers helped to achieve
>some degree of order particularly in Europe.

-Decolonization caused globalisation of European international society
>freed colonies opted for state sovereignty and corollaries of intl society
>Mutual recognition, non intervention, diplomacy, and concensual I. Law.

-The disintegeration of the USSR in 1989 completed this process of globalization of international society.


Elements of International Society?

-Mutual Recognition
>First step in contruction of Intl society
>history of I.S expansion is story of shifting boundry of inclusion and exclusion
(This element is not sufficient for I. society, the actors must have some common interest such as trade, freedom of travel or need for stability.

-Sovereign States,


Diplomatic culture.

-Consesual I. Law

(main reason of intl society is maintain international order)


Types of International Society?

-Pluralist Intl Society
>pluralist rules and norms
>provides a structure of co-existence.

-Solidarist Intl Society
>the collective enforcement of intl rule and
>guardianship of human rights.
(e.g) US intervened in Libya on solidarity principle