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Flashcards in T3- Scientific Revolution - Behavioral Approach Deck (15):

Who developed the System theory?

-System theory or General systems theory developed by the Political scientists like:
>David Easton
>Gabriel Almond
>Morton Kaplan

-Easton and Almond propunded this theory in the sphere of national politics.

-Kaplan and McClelland propunded this theory in the sphere of international politics.


What is a system?

-It is pertinent to understand the concept of system:
>which is, Acc to Bertallanfy, is a set of elements standing in interaction.

-James Rosenau, IR scholar, belives that
>A system is exist in an enviroment and
>to be composed of parts which through
>interaction are in relation to each other.

-Sum up
>A system is therefore a set of elements interacting with each other.
>It implies the interdependence as well as
>acceptance of influence from enviroment.

(e.g) Natural System (solar system)
(e.g) Mechanical Sys (Car, clock or computer)
(e.g) social system (Family)


The general system thoery was first propelled by

-Charles McClelland in 1955

-However, Morton Kaplan presented in a more systematic manner and
>stated that systems approach provides the only possible method
>which can ensure the development of scientific politics.


Which three things proponents of system theory holds?

-A system consist of three things:
>Identifiable Elements
>Relationship among elements
>Clear Notion of Boundry.

-First, every system has clear identifiable elements and
>the elements of international system are the nation states.

-Second, a system must have a set of relationships among elements
>elements must interact and remain interdependent to engage themselves in relationships
>In international system, nation states interect with each other and are dependent on one another.

-Third, a system must have the concept of boundry.
>this boundry seperates a system from other systems.
>without boundries, a system is incomplete.


Acc to System theorists, how a scientific study of international relation is possible?

-It is possible
>if the interaction among nation states and
>their level of interdependence can be satisfactorily analyzed.


System approach was the development of the ______ Sciences

-System approach was the development of the Behavioral Sciences
>originated in 1950s and
>its aim to consider IR from the perspective of International system in the post WW2 scnerio.


Baisc assumption of General System Theory?

-This theory assumes the existence of an international system at the global level.

-Previously, there has never been an international system including the whole planet.
>but in the post war period
>for the first time, the humanity is living in one and the same history
>and there has emerged kind of global system.
>It has two main actors
+National Actors (US, UK, Russia) and
+Supranational Actors (Nato, EU, UN) .

-This theory assumes that in a theory of international politics
>individual action cannot be predicted coz of
>complex interactions in intl system.

-This theory analysis 'International Behaviour' of a state from
>an imperical investigation of political facts.


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system?

-Indeed Kaplan have given the most comprehensive characterization of international politics in terms of system theory.
>He presented the number of real and hypothetical models of global political org.

-Kaplan lays greatest stress on the pattern of the behaviour of states.
>the International system is in constant change
>coz of the change in the character of state.

-International system can be divided into Six Models on the basis of function and stability:
a. The Balance of Power system
b. The loose Bipolar system
(First two are historical realities)
c. The tight bipolar system
d. The universal actor system
e. The hierarchical system
f. The Unit Veto System


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system
a. The Balance of Power system

-Kaplan's BOP is similar which prevailed in wetern world in 18th and 19th cent

-The operation of BOP has Six rules:
>Each actor should try to increase its capabilities through negotiations rather through war,
>Each actor's formost obligaion is to itself. shoul achieve its national interest even at the risk of war,
>Stop fighting if a participant's existence is threatned. no essential participant should be eliminated.
>Participant should oppose any coalition which suppose to disturb BOP
>The participant should prevent other participant from subscribing to the supranational principles
>the defeated participant should be permitted to re enter the system

-This system as undergone a change due to WW

-Kaplan opine that when participant donot play acc to rules, the systems becomes unstable


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system
b. The loose Bipolar system

Acc to Kaplan, if the BOP is destroyed then it will results in a loose bipolar system,
>where two states become dominant and control world politics.
(e.g) Cold war

-The loose bipolar system charecterized by the presence of
>Two major bloc actors (US and Soviet)
>Non-member actors (Non aligned states)
>The Universal Actors (U.N)


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system
c. The tight Bipolar system

-A hypothetical model

-It is the transformation of loose bipolar system into tight bipolar system
>where Non aligned states will disappear and
>universal actor will also dissapear.
>the states system will operate around two super blocs


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system
d. The Universal Actor System

-A hypothetical Model

-In this system an international org may becomes the centre of power
>all states will accept the superiority of a uni actor like UN

-Without giving up their sovereignty
>the nation states will abide by the decision of Uni actor.
>striking feature is prevention of War.

-WIll posses integerated system and will perform
>judicial, economic, political and admin functions
>national actors will try achieve their objectives under the framework of the Uni actor.

-National interest will be subordinated to international objectives like
>Peace and existence of humanity

-may eventually pave the way for the world govt


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system
e. Hierarchichal International System

-Hypothetical Model

-in this system, one country will become so powerful that other state will be controlled and directed by one super power

-This situation may be described as Unipolar world model
>UN may exists but will have no real power.

-the states would become territorial subdivisions of the internatioanl system
>rather than remaining sovereign, independent political units


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system
f. The Unit Veto System

-Hypothetical model

-this system resembles the state of nature as defined by Thomas Hobbes
>Each state will be enemy of other state
>coz all will posses nuclear weapons

-Weapons plays imp role in this system

-The essence of this system is that
>each state will be equally able to destroy each other.


Morton Kaplan's Six Models of International system

-Hoffmann Criticzes
>a huge misstep in the right direction

-Out of six, only first two were in actual operation,
>other four theoretical analysis are impracticable

-Kaplan had not disscussed the forces which determines the scale of nation's behaviour
>he omitted altogether the forces and factors at work within the state.

-Theory fails to give exact number of international systems.

-the theory considered nation state as elements leaving out imp non state elements of intl system
>which play significant role in intl politics today.