Flashcards in TBL22 - Male Genital Organs Deck (18):
Where does the mesonephric duct terminate and what does it branch into right before its termination? What portions of the ureter and mesonephric duct are absorbed into the posterior wall of the developing bladder?
1) Just prior to its termination in the primitive urogenital sinus, the mesonephric duct generates the ureteric bud
2) The proximal portion of the ureter and the portion of the mesonephric duct distal to the origin of the ureteric bud are absorbed into the posterior wall of the developing bladder
After the absorption of portions of the mesonephric duct and ureter into the bladder wall, what is formed near the end of the mesonephric duct?
After the absorption of portions of the mesonephric duct and ureter into the bladder wall, the seminal vesicle is formed by an epithelial outgrowth near the end of the mesonephric duct
What forms the prostate gland? What forms the ductus (vas) deferens? How is the ejaculatory duct formed and where does it terminate?
1) An epithelial outgrowth from the proximal urethra forms the prostate gland
2) The mesonephric duct proximal to the duct of the seminal vesicle becomes the ductus (vas) deferens
3) The ejaculatory duct, which terminates in the proximal urethra, is formed by the union of the ductus deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle
What does the proliferating prostatic parenchyma surround and what does it transform the proximal urethra into?
The proliferating prostatic parenchyma surrounds the ejaculatory duct and transforms the proximal urethra into the prostatic urethra (not labeled)
What is the seminal vesicle sandwiched between? On the posterior surface of the bladder, where does the pair of ductus deferens travel?
1) The seminal vesicle is sandwiched between the rectum posteriorly and fundus of the bladder anteriorly
2) On the posterior surface of the bladder, the pair of ductus deferens cross the ureters anteriorly enroute to the deep inguinal ring in the anterolateral abdominal wall
What is the bladder supplied by? What do branches of these arteries supply? What types of and where do nerve fibers arive from periarterial plexuses on these arteries?
1) The bladder is supplied by the vesicle arteries
2) Branches from the vesicle arteries supply the prostate and seminal vesicles
3) Periarterial plexuses on these branches of the vesicle arteries transport parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers from the inferior hypogastric plexuses to the bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicles
What does the prostatic venous plexus mainly drain into? What do the lateral sacral veins enable some venous drainage into?
1) The prostatic venous plexus drains mainly into the internal iliac veins
2) The lateral sacral veins enable some venous drainage into the internal vertebral venous plexus
Where does lymph from the prostate and seminal vesicles drain into?
Lymph from the prostate and seminal vesicles drains into the internal iliac lymph nodes
Why is benign hypertrophy of the prostate associated with nocturia, dysuria, and urinary frequency? How can tumor cells from a prostatic adenocarcinoma metastasize vascularly to the brain?
1) In benign hypertrophy of the prostate (BHP), an enlarged prostate projects into the urinary bladder and impedes urination by distorting the prostatic urethra
2) BHP is a common cause of urethral obstruction, leading to nocturia (need to void during the night), dysuria (difficulty and/or pain during urination), and urgency (sudden desire to void)
3) In advanced stages, cancer cells metastasize both via lymphatic routes (initially to the internal iliac and sacral lymph nodes and later to distant nodes), and via venous routes (by way of the internal vertebral venous plexus, to the vertebrae and brain)
What does the prostatic stroma consist of? Where do the prostatic glands secrete their secretions into? What contributes to ejaculation?
1) The prostatic stroma consists of collagen fibers mixed with bundles of smooth muscle fibers
2) The prostatic glands secrete into the prostatic urethra
3) Sympathetic-mediated contraction of the stromal smooth muscle contributes to ejaculation
What are the segmented zones of the prostate?
The prostate is segmented into a muscular anterior zone, a glandular central zone around the urethra and ejaculatory ducts, and a large peripheral glandular zone
What occurs to the central zone of the prostate with age? What is the peripheral zone susceptible to?
1) The central zone tends to hypertrophy with advancing age
2) The peripheral zone is susceptible to inflammation and prostatic adenocarcinoma
With aging, what appears in the prostatic acinar lumens? What percentage of seminal fluid do the secretory acini of the prostate account for? Define the role of the acinar secretions.
1) With aging, prostatic concretions (mixtures of glandular secretions and degenerated secretory cells) appear in the acinar lumens
2) The secretory acini account for 20% of seminal fluid
3) Secretory cells produce a white serous fluid containing acid phosphatase, citric acid, zinc, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and other proteases and fibrolytic enzymes involved in liquefaction of semen
What is the frequency of benign prostatic hypertrophy and how are its symptoms commonly treated?
1) Benign prostatic hypertrophy is a common clinical condition affecting 30% of men older than 50 years
2) The drugs used for treatment include a1-adrenergic receptor blockers, which inhibit contraction of prostatic smooth muscle and may help alleviate symptoms
Why can plasma levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) be elevated by a prostatic adenocarcinoma?
1) Adenocarcinoma of the prostate mostly affects the peripheral zone of the gland and causes elevated plasma levels of PSA
2) This serine protease is a product of prostatic epithelium
3) Any prostate condition that causes structural changes in the epithelium of the prostate gland can cause release of PSA
What does the interior surface of the seminal vesicles display? Describe the structure of the gland within each seminal vesicle. How is this structure related to the interior surface display of the seminal vesicles?
1) After sectioning, the interior of the seminal vesicles displays a vacuolated appearance
2) Each seminal vesicle contains a single, highly convoluted, tube-shaped gland
3) Thus, sectioning of the long, convoluted tubular gland results in the vacuolated appearance of the seminal vesicles
What does elaborate folding of the mucosa of the seminal vesicles result in? What is the lumen of the vesicles surrounded by? What does sympathetic-mediated innervation of this layer cause?
1) Elaborate folding of the mucosa creates a lumen of intercommunicating cavities of varying sizes
2) The lumen is surrounded by layers of smooth muscle
3) Sympathetic-mediated contraction of the layers contributes to ejaculation