Flashcards in TBL7 - Bones of Thigh and Leg Deck (28):
What are lower limb bones and hip bones derived from? What is different about the morphogenesis of the upper and lower limbs?
1) Like the shoulder and upper limb, the hip bones and bones of the lower limb are formed by chondroblasts and osteoblasts of the parietal layer of lateral plate mesoderm
2) Development of the upper and lower limbs is similar except that morphogenesis of the lower limb is approximately 1 to 2 days behind that of the upper limb
3) Also, during the seventh week of gestation, the limbs rotate in opposite directions. The upper limb rotates 90° laterally, so that the extensor muscles lie on the lateral and posterior surface, and the thumbs lie laterally, whereas the lower limb rotates approximately 90 degrees medially, placing the extensor muscles on the anterior surface and the big toe medially
What supports body weight?
1) Body weight is transferred from the vertebral column through the sacro-iliac joints (divided and directed laterally to the sacrum and via the sacroiliac joints to the thick portions of the bilateral ilia) to the pelvic girdle
2) Rami of the pubis are joined centrally at the pubic symphysis to stabilize the weight-bearing sacrum and ilia
3) From the pelvic girdle, body weight is transferred through the hip joints to the femurs (L. femora)
4) While standing, the weight of the upper body is transmitted to the heads and necks of the femurs
What 3 bones form the hip bone? What do these 3 bones also contribute to?
1) Fusion of the ilium, pubis, and ischium forms the hip bone
2) Portions of all three bones contribute to the acetabulum that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
What three ligaments reinforce the joint capsule at the hip? In what fashion do these ligaments travel from the hip bones to the femur? What about these ligaments increases or decreases joint stability and mobility?
1) The iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments reinforce the joint capsule at the hip
2) The ligaments pass in a spiral fashion from the hip bones to the femur and envision extension of the femur winds them more tightly thus increasing joint stability but restricting extension to 10-20⁰ beyond the vertical position
3) Flexion of the femur unwinds the ligaments and joint mobility is increased allowing flexion to ≥ 90⁰ beyond vertical
What results from the weakness of the ischiofemoral ligament? How are overabduction and hyperextension of the hip joint are prevented?
1) Posteriorly is the ischiofemoral ligament, which arises from the ischial part of the acetabular rim, is the weakest of the three ligaments. This causes hip dislocations most commonly in a posterior direction
2) Said to be the body’s strongest ligament, the iliofemoral ligament (located anteriorly & superiorly) specifically prevents hyperextension of the hip joint during standing by screwing the femoral head into the acetabulum
3) Anteriorly and inferiorly is the pubofemoral ligament, which blends with the medial part of the iliofemoral ligament, and tightens during both extension and abduction of the hip joint. The pubofemoral ligament prevents overabduction of the hip joint
Describe the relationship between the iliac fossa and crest. What is the function of the anterior superior and inferior iliac spines?
1) The thin iliac fossa is below the thickened superior border of the fossa, which forms the iliac crest
2) The anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and anterior inferior iliac spine are attachment sites for tendons of the anterior thigh muscles
What are avulsion fractures of the hip bone?
1) Avulsion fractures of the hip bone may occur during sports that require sudden acceleration or deceleration forces, such as sprinting or kicking in football, soccer, hurdle jumping, basketball, and martial arts
2) A small part of bone with a piece of a tendon or ligament attached is “avulsed” (torn away)
3) Avulsion fractures occur where muscles are attached: anterior superior and inferior iliac spines, ischial tuberosities, and ischiopubic rami
What is the ilium continuous with? Describe the location of the pubis, ischial spine, ischial tuberosity, and ischiopubic ramus. What do the ischium and pubis form the border of?
1) The ilium is continuous posteriorly with the body of the ischium and anteriorly with the superior ramus of the pubis
2) The ischium and pubis form the border of the obturator foramen
Recognize the head, neck, and greater and lesser trochanters of the femur. On the posterior aspect of the shaft, locate the linea aspera and recognize the lateral and medial epicondyles and condyles on the distal femur
Use figure to view these parts
How do spiral fractures and comminuted fractures of the femur differ?
1) Fractures of the greater trochanter and femoral shaft usually result from direct trauma (direct blows sustained by the bone resulting from falls or being hit) and are most common during the more active years
2) A spiral fracture of the femoral shaft may occur, resulting in foreshortening as the fragments override
3) The fracture may be comminuted (broken into several
pieces), with the fragments displaced in various directions as a result of muscle pull and depending on the level of the fracture
Locate the medial and lateral condyles, shaft, tibial tuberosity, and medial malleolus of the tibia. What is the function of the knee joint?
The knee joint, which is formed by articulation of the femoral and tibial condyles, enables flexion and extension of the leg
Locate the head, neck, shaft, and lateral malleolus of the fibula
Use figure to view these parts
What causes Osgood-Schlatter disease and what are its symptoms?
Disruption of the epiphysial plate at the tibial tuberosity may cause inflammation of the tuberosity and chronic recurring pain during adolescence (Osgood-Schlatter disease), especially in young athletes
What is the function of having obliquity of the femur in the thigh and verticality of the tibia in the leg?
The angle of inclination enables femoral obliquity, which places the knee joints inferior to the sacrum; thus, the center of gravity returns to the vertical axes of the supporting legs and feet
What occurs to the angle of the femur as one ages? What does this cause?
1) The angle of inclination of the femur diminishes (becomes more acute) with aging
2) Thus, increased strain on the neck of the femur makes its fracture more common in the elderly
What are the lateral and medial menisci?
1) Observe the incongruence of the articular surfaces at the knee joint
2) The lateral and medial menisci are incomplete rings of dense connective tissue partially covering the articular surface of the tibial condyles
What is the most stable position of the knee joint?
The most stable position of the knee joint is the erect, extended position when contact of the articular surfaces is maximized and the primary ligaments of the knee are taut
What does the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament (LCL) attach to?
The cord-like lateral (fibular) collateral ligament (LCL) attaches the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the fibular head
What does the medial (tibial) collateral ligament (MCL) attach to?
The strong, flat medial (tibial) collateral ligament (MCL) attaches the medial epicondyle of the femur to the superomedial surface of the tibia
What separates the lateral meniscus from the LCL? What is noticeable about the medial meniscus and MCL?
1) The tendon of the popliteus muscle separates the lateral meniscus and LCL
2) The medial meniscus is attached to the MCL; thus, the medial meniscus and MCL are commonly torn during contact sports
What does the combined structure of the ACL and PCL look like?
In the center of the knee joint, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) cross each other obliquely like the letter X
Where does the PCL attach? What is its function?
1) The stronger PCL arises from the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia and attaches anteriorly to the medial condyle of the femur
2) Thus, the PCL prevents anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperflexion of the leg
Where does the ACL attach? What is its function?
1) The weaker ACL arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and attaches posteriorly to the lateral condyle of the femur
2) Thus, the ACL prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperextension of the leg
How can twisting of the flexed knee create the “unhappy triad” injury?
1) The firm attachment of the TCL to the medial meniscus is of considerable clinical significance because tearing of this ligament frequently results in concomitant tearing of the medial meniscus. The injury is frequently caused by a blow to the lateral side of the extended knee, or excessive lateral twisting of the flexed knee that disrupts the TCL and concomitantly tears and/or detaches the medial meniscus from the joint capsule
2) The ACL, which serves as a pivot for rotatory movements of the knee, and is taut during flexion, may also tear subsequent to the rupture of the TCL, creating an “unhappy triad” of knee injuries
What are the anterior and posterior drawer signs?
1) ACL rupture causes the free tibia to slide anteriorly under the fixed femur, known as the anterior drawer sign; it is tested clinically via the Lachman test
2) PCL ruptures allow the free tibia to slide posteriorly under the fixed femur, known as the posterior drawer sign
What is the sliding area of the joint formed by? What is the function of the menisci?
1) The sliding area of the joint is formed by articular cartilage i.e., hyaline cartilage lacking a perichondrium
2) The meniscus projecting into the synovial cavity provides shock absorption and load distribution for the knee joint
What is the joint capsule of the knee made of? Where are these joint capsules found?
1) The joint capsule is lined by the synovial membrane, which consists of simple cuboidal epithelium that produces synovial fluid for lubrication of the articular surfaces
2) Synovial cavities, synovial membranes, and articular cartilage characterize all joints of the upper and lower limbs