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Project Management Year 1 > Technology Studies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Technology Studies Deck (93)
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1
Q

Mast Climbers (6)

A
Reduced Access Time
Single 5000kg Double 10,000kg
Increased Capacity
Improved Safety 
Reduced Damage Risk to Components 
Reduces fixing period by 40%
2
Q

Scaffolds

A

Useful for lightweight panels in not high rise projects

3
Q

Tower / Mobile Cranes

A

Can be slow and expensive

4
Q

Influence on choice of panels (5)

A
Size and Weight
Method of fixing 
Fixing plant requirements 
Access to the building
Scaffold or fixing from internal floors
5
Q

Beam and Block Floor (5)

A
Also known as Beam and Pot
Wide range of block available :
Beam + Polystyrene / Precast and Infill block
Depth of prestressed varies 100-200mm 
Depends on span/loading
6
Q

Metal Deck Floor (7)

A

Metal deck shot fired to supporting steelwork Lat stability
Shear bolts fitted to tie to main frame
Fabric reinforced / topping (concrete)
On site floor construction
Design varies sizes / shape / finishes
Various thickness depends span between beams
Incorporated into multi-storey steel framed buildings

7
Q

Precast Concrete Floor (3)

A

Wide range of hollow and shallow designs
Depth varies 600-1200mm
Requires heavy plant for lifting

8
Q

Precast Plank Floor (6)

A
Permanent replace to a formwork soffit suspended floor
50-100mm thick
High quality due to factory production
Design flexibility
Fire and sound resistant 
Speed of erection
9
Q

In-situ Concrete Framing Advantages (4)

A

Flexible Design
Strong monolith
Everything produced on site
Simple construction method

10
Q

In-situ Concrete Framing Disadvantages (4)

A

Difficult to change
Errors are expensive to fix
Quality checks require
Labour intensive

11
Q

Precast Concrete Frames (5)

A
Relatively fast to build
High quality due to prefab
Less labour on site
Requires heavy lifting plant  
Logistical Difficulties
12
Q

Steel Frames (6)

A
Completely built off site
Complex structures trial erected
Easy to Assemble
Less labour on site
Logistical difficulties 
Requires additional fire protection
13
Q

Commercial Structural Considerations (4)

A

Time of Construction
Practical Design
Floor Area
Possible Changes

14
Q

Residential Structural Considerations (4)

A

Quality
Insulation
Protection - Security and Fire
Durability

15
Q

Portal Frames (5)

A

Use of continues or rigid frame allows for extra space
Wide Spans 60m+
Prefab components fast construction
Stress/frame deflectio taken pin/pockete (deep foundat)
Can have future expansions

16
Q

Materials for Portal Frames (4)

A

Precast Concrete
Steel
Lattice Steel
Wood and Glulam

17
Q

Diaphragm Walls (5)

A

Excavating a trench before main excavation
Bentonite used to stabilise excavation
Prefab reinforcement is lowered
Concrete pumped replacing reusable bentonite

18
Q

Contiguous Bored Piling (5)

A
Bored in-site piles with grout between them
Placed as near to each other as possible
CFA or Rotatory Bored Piles can be used
Alone not waterproof grout is needed
Can incorporate ground anchors
19
Q

Secant Piling (Stent Walls) (4)

A

Excav / Formwork / Concrete guide walls / remove form
Insert :
PFA Piles / Reinf concrete piles creates continuous wall
Break Guide walls
Insert capping beam

20
Q

Ground Water Permanent Methods (8)

A
Sheet steel piling
Ground Anchors
H Piles
Infill Panels
Secant Piles
Diaphragm Walls
Continous Piles
Cement and Chemical Grounding
21
Q

Ground Water Temporary Methods (7)

A
De-Watering
Well-Pointing
Use of Pumps
Ground Freezing
Temporary Sheet Piling
Bitumen Grout
Electro-Osmosis
22
Q

Concrete Handling Techniques (3)

Cranes / Skips

A

Small and Medium Pours
Site Mixed / Site Batching Plant / Ready Mix
Requires Crane and Various Skip Types

23
Q

Concrete Handling Techniques (6)

Pumping

A

400-700 quid a day to hire
Cost / Time effective for large quantities
Cheap for small pours too
Requires careful logistical planning
Labour intensive - levelling and finishing
Requires pumping equipment

24
Q

Piling Techniques (3)

A

Displacement
Replacement
Vibro-Replacement

25
Q

Replacement Piles Types (2)

A

Percussion Bored - Small and Medium sized project

Rotary Bored - Any Project

26
Q

Site Layout Planning (5)

A
Security / Fencing / Entrance Gates
Location of offices / accommodation / other site service
Welfare facilities
Traffic Movement Plan
Storage of Plant and Materials
27
Q

Traffic Movement Plan (4)

A

Temporary Roads
Movement Corridors
Hardstandings
Access Points

28
Q

Site Types - Open Field (6)

A
Housing estates / factory development
Easy Access
A lot of space to use - storage
Allows for most efficient and effective construction
May be far away from roads
Requires new local infrastructure
29
Q

Site Types - Long and Thin (5)

A
Restricted Width
Complicated movement corridor on site
Logistical Difficulties
Allows for limited construction methods
May cause problems and additional cost
30
Q

Site Types - Restricted (7)

A

Tight site in cities / industrial improvement works
Occupies whole footprint / high % of site
Restricted access / care in planning required
Complex storage and equipment arrangements
Complex logistical arrangements
Potential difficulties with crane / surrounding parties
Often required basement construction

31
Q

Advantages of Prefab Construction (10)

A
Value for Money
Standardisation
Minimal Wastage
Minimal Defects
Better Quality Control
Minimal Environmental Impact
Greater efficiency and productivity 
Increase in predictability
More rapid on-site construction
BIM can be used
32
Q

Disadvantages of Prefab Construction (4)

A

Need for Fabrication sites
Increased cost of late changes
New methods of construction
Limited tolerance

33
Q

Demolition Disadvantages (4)

A

Dangerous
Requires a lot of planning and Preparation
Requires heavy plant
Labour intensive

34
Q

Methods of Demolition (5)

A
Human operatives (small projects)
Collapse
Pulling / Pushing
Wrecking Ball
Implosion (Technical Explosion)
35
Q

Buildability Definition

A

The extent to which the design of the building facilitates ease of construction, subject to the overall requirements of the finished building

36
Q

Buildability Factors of Influence (4)

A

Design
Technical requirements
Resource requirements
Future of project

37
Q

Three Types of Basement Construction (3)

A

In-Situ Concrete Basement
Traditional Brick Basement
Pre-cast Concrete Basement

38
Q

In-Situ Concrete Basement (4)

A

Construct Floor Slab
Construct Walls / Reinforcement / Formwork / Concrete
Construct Roof Slab in-situ or precast
Water bar may be included in walls/joints (sealing)

39
Q

Traditional Brick Basement Construction (8)

A
Construct Floor Slab
Asphalt Floor Surface
Construct Inner Brick Wall
Asphalt Wall
Protective Brickwork Skin
Construct Inner Floor
Construct Roof Slab
Require waterproofing in asphalt form
40
Q

Precast Concrete Basements (4)

A

Construct Floor slab / Reinforce / Formwork / Concrete
Erect Precast Walls
Construct Roof Slab precast or In-Situ
Single wall / double wall / infill with concrete

41
Q

Water going to be a problem Basements

Excavation over a large area

A

Steel Sheet Piling is required

Single face support the only option

42
Q

Ground Anchors (3)

A

Permission needed under public land (trespass)
Authorities impose conditions (not allow 2m near sewer)
Adjoining neighbours issue, reject alternatives needed

43
Q

Diaphragm Wall Disadvantages (3)

A

Specialist technique
Personnel Required
Expensive

44
Q
Sheet Pile
H Pile (3)
A

Provides cut-off to ground water entry

Placed Vertically around the excavation
Concrete slabs connected in between
Act as permanent supp and surface for basement wall

45
Q

Pile Foundations Definition / Fact (3)

A

Transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground.
The main components are the pile and the piling cap
Main materials for the pile is steel, wood and concrete

46
Q

Four Types of Piling

A

Displacement - Precast Driven
Replacement - CFA used 4 storey steel framed building
Vib-rep - Impro weak soil bearing cap w/ stone column
Mini-Piling System - Used for Life Shaft Base

47
Q

End Bearing

Friction

A

Load carried through weak onto firm strata

Load transfered into surrounding soil by friction of pile

48
Q

Vibro-Replacement Wet / Dry Technique

A

Water jetting forming hole prior to stone being placed

Vibrator to form hole then fed with dry stone

49
Q

Three Types of Concrete Frame

A

Column and Beam Frames
Flat Slab Construction
Crosswall Construction

50
Q

Advantages of In-Situ Concrete (5)

A
Amenable to almost any shape
Connections homogenous to rest of structure
Resistant to disaster
Whole production on site
Design can proceed with construction
51
Q

Disadvantages of In-Situ Concrete (3)

A

Subsequent alterations very difficult
Errors in setting out formwork
Reinf / formwork Labour intensive / On site plant

52
Q

Column and Beam Frame (2)

A

Have downstand beams

Integral part of construction

53
Q

Formwork

A

The process of creating a mould for which concrete is poured in

54
Q

Shuttering

A

Most popular type of formwork

Timber / plywood must be waterproof

55
Q

Formwork Considerations (5)

A

Type of concrete and temperature
Need to resist the dead load of wet and dry concrete
High quality workmanship and checking required
Retain its shaped, propped vertically/horizontally
Materials should be appropriate for reuse

56
Q

Portal Frame Building Examples (3)

A

Warehouses
Factories
Leisure Centres

57
Q

Rigid Portal Frame (4)

A

Rigid Joint at Base
Rigid Joint to connect haunch/roof
Haunch may be incorporated
Apex Joint

58
Q

Steel Portal Frame Cladding / Bracing

A

Vertical columns introdu at gables to support cladding

Wall / roof bracing req at selected bays end of building

59
Q

Portal Frame Profile Examples (4)

A

Skylight
Asymmetrical
Symmetrical
Curved Rafter

60
Q

Lattice Portal Frame (4)

A

Open grid of steel angles or tubular members
Pinned joints at apex or stanchion
1/2/3 pin joints available
Pin joint supports stanchion reduces bending moment

61
Q

Lattice Portal Frame Requirements (3)

A

Adequate wind and side bracing
Portals are normally spaced at 6m centres
Variety of roof/wall claddings are available

62
Q

Fixing Small Panels (3)

A

Mast Climber
Scaffold
Hydraulic Platforms (Scissor Lift)

63
Q

Panel Examples
Scissor Lift
Mast Climber

A

Lightweight Aluminium Panels fixed onto the face

Brickwork Panels

64
Q

Storey Height Panels (2)

A

Heavy cladding panels held in position by steel plates and connectors fitted to the ends of floors or onto the wall face of the building
Glass storey hei panels, crane w/ mast climb fixing gang

65
Q

Internal Fitting Storey Height Panel (3)

A

Mini hydraulic floor crane
Panel lifted from trolley from floor below
Panel lowered into position and fitted to bracket slots

66
Q

Cantilever Boxes (2)

A

Fixed between floors of a building

Loading materials to be fitted

67
Q

Structural Insulated Panels (5)

A
Rapid erection for domestic and commercial use
Ideal backing for overfixing rainscreen
Made from Orientated Strand Board 
Used for floor/roof/wall of a building
Continuity of insulation and air leakage
68
Q

Benefits of SIPs (7)

A
Environmentally friendly
Speed of insulation 
Strong and lightweight
Factory produces (defects/quality)
Minimal waste/max recycling
High insulation values
Extern finishes render, rainscreen, weatherboardd, bricks
69
Q

Rainscreen (3)

A

Allows for the deflection of most of the rain
Gap between to allow air movement
Space prevents water from penetrating the wall

70
Q

Curtain Wall Definition / Idea

A

A wall surrounding a building but doesn’t support roof.

Only support own weight/weight imposed upon them

71
Q

Typical Curtain Wall composed of

A

A lightweight aluminium frame

Glass / opaque panels can be fixed

72
Q

Stick Systems (2)

A

Installed piece by piece

Glazing inserted into frame from out/inside dep access

73
Q

Unitised Systems (3)

A

Prefab off site and delivered in panels
Factory produced quality / defects
Low installation time

74
Q

Pre-Contract Stage (3)

A

Site Layout Planning
Construction Methods
Safety Procedures

75
Q

Contractors Pre-Contract Meeting (3)

A

Announce award of contract
Distribute tender analysis data to QS
Propose/appoint contractor site management team

76
Q

Site Hazard Board

Site Layout Proposal

A

Located adjacent to site mess / office facilities

Approved by PM / Client

77
Q

Site Layout Plan Major Plant / Sub Contract / Vehicles (4)

A

Siting of major plant
Locat/radius tower crane - site access roads / storage
Separate storage for sub contractor materials
Vehicle Parking - parking elsewhere causes disputes

78
Q

Welfare Facilities (3)

A

Drying facilities
Signing in
Toilets

79
Q

Site Security (4)

A

Site fencing / hoarding
Secure entry gates
24 hour video security

80
Q

Other Site Considerations
Sign
Pedestrians
Access areas

A
  • Pedestrian access routes to work areas
  • Space around building for the provision of scaffolding, hoists and access areas to the base of hoists
  • Site signage – directory, safety and warnings
81
Q

Advantages of Precast Concrete Structures (5)

A
Manufacture off site
Speeds up erection time
Quality assurance
Reduced onsite labour 
Doesn't require formwork
82
Q

Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Structures (5)

A
Design complete before build
Last minute alteration impossible
More expensive
Care in handling / protection
Damage to elements delay construction
83
Q

Steel Frame Disadvantages (3)

A

Inaccuracies in manufacture
Fire proofing needed
Safe working conditions during erection difficult

84
Q

Faster Buildings (4)

A

Simple forms
Few technical activities
Readily replaceable resources
Extensive and similar workplaces

85
Q

Slower Buildings (4)

A

Complex
Many technical activities / Different activities
Unique resources
Many small and differing workplaces

86
Q

Construction Material Waste (4)

A

Design Waste - Cutting to fit
Take-off/Specifi Waste - Excessive materials delivered
Delivery Waste - Incorrect specification
Site Waste - Poor storage

87
Q

Cladding Requirements (5)

A
Self supporting between framing members
Provide rain resistance
Resist positive/negative wind pressure
Thermal / sound insulation
Fire resistance
88
Q

Plant Selection Determined (10)

A
Workloads for handling
Range of weights / packaging
Work carried out and outputs required
Access between unloading / point of fixing
Character of site and boundaries
Pollution
Sequence of events
Temporary roads
Time of year
Obstructions above / below ground
89
Q

Geography of the site (9)

A

Geological conditions - clay, rock, sand, flint, gravel
Natural drainage of site
Slope characteristics - gentle / steep / plant impact
Access to site
Overhead - power lines / preserved trees
Below - gas/water/electric / existing drainage
Offloading
Plant over swing
Noise limitations

90
Q

Large / Small Displacement Pile

A

Solid pile - timber / concrete

Rolled steel like H-pile

91
Q

Replacement Pile (3)

A

Boring / other methods of excavation
Bore hole lined with casing / tube
Left in place or extracted after use

92
Q

Pile Classification (3)

A

Large Displacement
Small Displacement
Replacement

93
Q

CFA Piles

A

Vibration free
Reduced noise
Soft water bearing ground