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Flashcards in Project Management Deck (88)
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1
Q

Project Definition

A

A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service

2
Q

4 Key Elements of a Project

A

Complex - one time processes
Limited by budget - schedule and resources
To develop goals or deliverables
Customer focused

3
Q

Operation vs Project

A

Repetitive Processes - One time Processes
Stable Organisation - Temporary Organisation
Ongoing Lifecycle - Limited Lifecycle
Several Objectives - One Objective

4
Q

Definition of Project Management

A

Fewings
The overall planning, co-ordination and control of a project from inception to completion, aimed at meeting a client’s requirements

5
Q

Project Manager Objectives

A

Providing a cost effective and independent service
Selecting/integrating/managing diff disciplines and expertise
Satisfying object/provisions of prj brief from incep to compl
Safeguard client interest give consid to needs eventual user

6
Q

PMBoK 6 Key PM Areas

A
Scope
Time
Cost
Quality
Human Resources
Communication
7
Q

Lifecycle of Construction Projects

A
Inception 
Strategy / Feasibility 
Design and Tendering
Construction
Engineering Commission 
Completion and Handover
Client Occupation and Commission 

Conception - Inception to Construction

8
Q

Inception

A

Recognition of Project objectives
Client Advisor / PM / Architect
Client Objectives interpreted to strategic brief

9
Q

Completion and Handover

A

Ensure everything is working

Hand over completed projects / documentation.

10
Q

Feasibility

A

Define financial feasibility and benefits
Investigation of alternative site locations,
Funding options
Design appraisal
Value enhancement
Life costing
PM / QS / Architect

11
Q

Strategy

A

How a project is completed and controlled
Choosing correct procurement
Value management
Project execution plan - analyse / allocate risk
PM / CM

12
Q

Pre-Construction

A

Design scheme
Detailed drawings
Mobilisation of resources

13
Q

Construction Phase

A

Construction of the project

14
Q

Engineering Commission

A

Efficient functioning of the building

Setting regulatory requirements,

15
Q

Client Occupation and Commission

A

Appraisal and Review

Lessons learnt for Client / PM

16
Q

Project Team Roles

A

Client
Project Sponsor
Project Manager
Project Team (Design Team) (Construction Team)

Design Team - QS / Architect / Engineer
Construction Team - Specialist / Specialist

17
Q

Briefing Definition

A

The process running throughout the construction project by which means the clients requirements are progressively captures and translated into effect

18
Q

Strategy Definition

A

The adoption of a proactive approach to a business environment

19
Q

Agile PM Triangle

A

Quality
Value
Constraints

20
Q

Project Strategic Plan

A

Describe business opportunity
Overall objectives of project
Estimates of time required
Project scope what is and isn’t intended

21
Q

Project mission

A

The overriding purpose of the project

22
Q

Project scope

A

Defines the project objectives

23
Q

Why have a Project Mission

A

Defines the external view of the project
Enables communication of intent to stakeholders
Provides criteria for assessing proposed scope changes
Provides context and guidance for decision-making

24
Q

Process of Briefing

A

Pre-Project - Conceive - Statement of need / strat brief
Project - Design/Construct - Validate breif / Project brief
Post Project Occupy - Post complete / post occu review

25
Q

Key Briefing Problems

A

Poor Project Definition - not enough time
Vague assumptions / decisions about org future
No clear requirements / priorities
Misunderstanding between stakeholders

26
Q

Solutions to Briefing Problems

A

Empower Clients
Managing Project Dynamics
Appropriate Team Building

27
Q

Project Lifecycle

A

Design
Implementation
Closeout

28
Q

Pure Functional Structure

A

Senior Management Team
Engineeri Marketi Manufacturing Procure
Clear lines of command
Clear grouping of related activities

29
Q

Functional Matrix

A

PM Co-ordinates one from each team
Functional Managers w/ primary responsib
Built for change
PM to coordinate Project related activities

30
Q

Project Matrix

A

Built for change
PM with primary authority
Funct manag assign personn/align advisory expertise

31
Q

Project-Based Organisation

A
Functions case to exist
All activities organised by projects, not HR
Very lean system
Need for Director of Projects 
DoP ensure consis/learn between project
32
Q

PM Authority
Resources Availability
Budget Control
Project Managers Role

A

Pure Funct, Functi, Proj Matrix, Proj Bas Og
Progress chasing, Limited, Moderate, High
Little, Limited, Moderate, High
FM, FM, PM, PM
Part Time, Part Time, Full Time, Full Time

33
Q

Latham and Banwell Report Briefing

A

Latham - More effor to underst client need

Banwell - insuff resour to define prj require

34
Q

Key Stakeholders

A

Depend - prj type, contract, complexity
Planning - Owner, designers, occupants
Design - Designers, contractor owner occu
Construction - Contractor, design, owner

35
Q

Empowering the client

A

Aware of project constraints
Understand their role/responsibility
Appoint internal project manager
Understand basic of the construct process

36
Q

Managing Project Dynamics

A

Establish contraints early
Est prj programme, highlight critical dates
Agree procedures/methods of working
Allow adequate time to assess client needs

37
Q

Appropriate User Involvement

A

User involvement benefits understood
User involvement maintained throughout
User participation planned to get right data

38
Q

The Design Team Requirements

A

Open, Limited or invited competition
Tech - Design qual/urban impact, HS, Sustainability
Process - Construct process/logistics, design process
Commercial - Cost estimating, Contract / procurement routes
Personal - Communicating, managing, negotiating

39
Q

Managing Design

A

The oversight of schedules and budget
Revie key submiss deliverabl wi/ prog goal / design obj
Application of client standard / criteria

40
Q

Design Team Problems

A

Don’t comply with project brief
Don’t trust the client
Communication problems

41
Q

Tamed Problems / How to solve

A

Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
Evaluation - Synthesis
Synthesis - Analysis

42
Q

Wicked Problems / How to solve

A

Primary Generator Conjecture Analysis
Analysis - Conjecture
Conjecture - Primary Generator

43
Q

Design Quality Indicator

A

Impact - Urban integration, materials, internal environ
Quality - Performance, engineering, construction
Functionality - Access, space, use

44
Q

Cost - Value/Cost

A
X - Time
Y - Value / Cost
Prepare, Design, Construct
After Prepare Cost of change increases
After Prepare Opp/influence on design decreases
45
Q

Value Earned Method

A
Compare value of actual work - value of proposed work
Method of measuring project performance
Is it ahead or behind schedule
Over/under budget
Total cost after completion
46
Q

Requirements of EVA

A

Detailed work breakdown structure
Timely and accurate cost data collection
Method for quantifying work done and work in progress

47
Q

EVA Graph

A
Y - Cost or man-hours
X - Time
Horizontal - Budget at completion line
Vertical - Time
Spend and Planned cost lines
48
Q

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled

A

Proposed cost of work to be undertaken at a specific time

49
Q

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed

A

Proposed cost of actual work done at a specific point in time earned value

50
Q

Actual Cost of Work Performed

A

Actual cost of actual work done at a specific point in time

51
Q

Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) Formula

A

% complete of schedule x BAC

52
Q

Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) Formula

A

% complete of actual work x BAC

53
Q

The decision to Build Cycle

A
Triggers
Clients Business
Site Selection / Building selection
Design
Construction
Commission
Post Occupancy Evaluation 
Refurb, Adapt, Extend / Disposal
Demolition
54
Q

Client Types

A
Sector - Private, Public
Size - Small, Medium, Large
Interest - Developer, owner/occupier 
Experience - Experienced or Inexperienced
Social complexity
Multi-faceted client
55
Q

Business Case

A

What is a reasonable / affordable budget
What are the investment opportunities
What time scale is required

56
Q

Client Objectives

A

Statement of need
Financially viable
Functional facility

57
Q

Stage Gate’s

A

Concept
Appraise Options - Stage Gate 1 - Approve buisn case
Scheme Design - Stage Gate 2 - Approv project outline
Design - Stage Gate 3 - Sanction detaile plan/execution
Execute - Stage Gate 4 - Commissioning / Acceptance
Operate - Stage Gate 4 - Commissioning / Acceptance

58
Q

Whats included in a Project Strategic Plan

A

Budget
Resources Needed
Quality Policy
Project Risk Management Strategy

59
Q

Process of developing Brief from Objectives

A
Goals
Company Strategic Planning
Client Objective / Project Objective 
Outline Project Brief and Outline Planning 
Feasibility / Strategy
60
Q

Portfolio of Projects

A

Shares resources but has no interdependencies
Strat cap budgeting - funds to most promising projects
Shared Human resources
Risk Management - risks shared across projects

61
Q

Programme Managers

A

Involves managing a group of related projects in a coordinated way to achieve benefits not possible if managed individually

62
Q

Portfolio Managers

A

Responsibility to ensure projects collectively meet org’s / client’s obj. Hold regular project progress review meetings with PM

63
Q

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

A

BCWP / BCWS

<1 (time delay)

64
Q

Cost variance (CV)

A

BCWP – ACWP (negative implies cost overrun)

65
Q

Cost performance index (CPI)

A

BCWP / ACWP (< 1 implies cost overrun)

66
Q

Revised duration (RD)

A

Original duration / SPI

67
Q

ACWP

A

Actual Cost of Work Performed

Actual cost of work done at specific time

68
Q

BAC

A

Budget at Completion

69
Q

ETC

A

Estimate to Completion

BAC - BCWP

70
Q

EAC

A

Estimate at Completion
ETC + ACWP
BAC / CPI

71
Q

VAC

A

Variance at Completion

BAC - EAC

72
Q

Stakeholder Defintion

A

An individual or group of individuals within or external to the project or program who have an interest in its outcome, for whatever reasons

73
Q

Stakeholder Management Success Factors

A

Identifying Stakeholders
Assessing stakeholder behaviour
Analysing potential influence of stakeholder
Analysing potential conflicts and coalitions

74
Q

Classification of Stakeholders

A

Demand - Users / Client
Supply - Designers / Contractors
Public - Local Government / Regulatory Agencies
Private - Local Residents / Environmentalists

75
Q

Power / Interest Matrix

A
Level of Interest / Level of Power
Low / Low - Minimal Effort 
Low / High - Keep Satisfied 
High / Low -  Keep Informed
High / High - Key Players
76
Q

Defintion of Risk

A

The chance of something happening that will impact upon objectives

77
Q

Types of Risk

A

Cost, time, quality, safety, environmental impact

Zou and Zhang

78
Q

Risk Sequence

A

Threat
Proactive Response
Event
Reactive Response

79
Q

Response to risk

A
Accept
Avoid
Transfer
Share
Mitigate
80
Q
Characterising Uncertainty
Known knowns
Known unknowns
Unknown unknowns (“unk-unks”)
Unknown knowns
A

Risks
Identified uncertainties
Unidentified uncertainties
Impacted information

81
Q

Stages of Project Review

A

Stage 1 - Data Gathering
Stage 2 - Findings (Analysis)
Stage 3 - Report / Verification

82
Q

Gate Staged Process

A

Business Opportunity
Appraise - Gate 1 - Is business case robust
Select - Gate 2 - Is scope completed
Define - Gate 3 - Is the project ready to execute
Execute
Operate

83
Q

Types of Innovation

A

Innovation spectrum - Incremental to radical
Product / Service Inno - New / improve prod, services
Process Inno - New method, tech for desig, producing
Open Inno - Extensive Inno communities and networks
Top-Down/Bott-up inno - Senior manager and employee

84
Q

Small Change - Radical Change Scale

A
Incremental
Modular
Architectural
System
Radical
85
Q

Top Down-Bottom Up Diagram

A

Environment - Firm (Adoption/Implementation)
Firm - Project (Learning)
Project - Environmental

86
Q

Functions of PMO

A

Assess staff competence and org capability gaps
Assess long term resource needs
Arrange periodic project reviews
Define the required PM competencies

87
Q

Defintion of Governance

A

Muller

The values, system, structures, processes and policies that allows projects to achieve organisational objectives

88
Q

Three Domains of Project Organising

A

Projects and Programmes - Temporary
Project-Based firms - Permanent, prj core business
Owners and Operators - Permane, prj not core business