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Flashcards in Management Deck (92)
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1
Q

Power Culture (Handy)

A

Peoples activities are strongly influenced by a dominant figure
Power is held by the few and from the centre

2
Q

Role Culture (Handy)

A

Influenced by clear and detailed job descriptions in a well defined structure
Power derives from a person position

3
Q

Task Culture (Handy)

A

Teams are used to solve the problem
Power derives from expertise
Matrix so no single source of power

4
Q

Person Culture (Handy)

A

Activities are influenced by the wishes of the individuals who are part of the organisation

5
Q

Integration (Martin) Perspective

A

Culture values should be shared across the organisation, a unified culture

6
Q

Differentiation (Martin) Perspective

A

Conflicting demands from individuals

Cultural pluralism

7
Q

Fragmentation (Martin) Perspective

A

Constant changing of events, organisation as complex and unpredictable

8
Q

Cultural Pluralism

A

When smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities

9
Q

HRM

A

Strategies for managing people in order to achieve business objectives.

10
Q

Soft HRM

A

An approach to HRM based on treating employees as the most important resource in a business.

11
Q

Porters 5 Forces

A

Intensity of Rivalry
Bargaining Suppliers/Sellers
Threat of substitutes/new entrants

12
Q

Hard HRM

A

An approach to HRM based on treating employees as a resource that needs to be managed.

13
Q

Project Culture

A

A set of beliefs, attitudes and behaviours that exist independently of the individuals in the project.

14
Q

Culture (GR Mills)

A

Abstract, long-term and socially determined
Often associated with psychological traits and beliefs
Not emergent, dynamic and incentive-driven interactions

15
Q

Group Decision Making Positive (4)

A
  • Complete information/knowledge
  • Increased diversity of views and higher creativity
  • Wider acceptance/adoption of a solution
  • Group decisions accurate than decisions of individuals,
16
Q

Group Decision Making Negative (5)

A
  • Time consuming because solutions take longer
  • Individuals are quicker
  • Conformity pressures in groups
  • Group discussions may dominated by one/few members
  • Ambiguous responsibility
17
Q

Barriers to Team Motivation (6)

A

Unclear objectives/direction
Insufficient resources
Power struggles/conflicts not confronted/resolved
Poor job security
Shifting goals/priorities (wrong prioritisation)
Barriers tackled directly by dealing with cause or indirectly

18
Q

Belbins 9 Team Roles Idea

A

Groups need the right mix / balance of people (skills and behaviour) to be effective.
May build productive working relationships
People, action and problem solving oritentated

19
Q

Intrinsic Motivation

A

Performing well in order to gain an internal reward, coming from INside the individual

20
Q

Extrinsic Motivation

A

Performing well in order to earn a reward

21
Q

Hygiene Factors (5)

A
Factors causing job satisfaction
Salary and benefits
Working conditions
Company policy
Job security
Supervision and autonomy
22
Q

Theory X

A

Managers take a pessimistic assume they’re unmotivated and dislike work. Team members need to be prompted, rewarded or punished constantly to complete their tasks.

23
Q

Theory Y

A

Optimistic view and use a decentralized, participative style. Encourages more collaboration and trust-based relationship between managers and their team members.
Greater responsibility and try to develop employee skills

24
Q

Expectancy Theory (Vroom)

A

Increased effort leads to increased performance i.e. if I work harder then this will be better.

25
Q

Expectancy Theory (Vroom) 3 Points

A

Valence (bothered about outcome)
Instrumentality (the outcome will affect something)
Expectancy (expectation how good outcome will be)

26
Q

Expectancy Theory (Vroom) Process (4)

A

Individual effort
Individual Performance
Organisational Reward
Personal Goals

27
Q

Herzberg 2 Factor Theory

A

Hygiene factors and Motivators -

28
Q

Herzberg Dis/Satisfaction Idea

A

Sources of dissatis.. when removed, don’t produce satisfaction, but rather no dissatisfaction.
Satis… from factors like job challenge/personal growth/etc

29
Q

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs (5)

A
Psychological - Warmth/shelter
Safety - Security/no fear
Social -  Interactions
Asteem - Regard/appreciation
Self actualisation
30
Q

Values (4)

MP GPaB

A

Guiding principles and beliefs / Motivations / Priorities

Personal/moral frames that influence behaviours/beliefs

31
Q

Attitude (4)
EJ OPE
ABC I R

A

Evaluation or judgment concerning objects/people/events
Form affective/behavioural/cognitive intention response
Result of direct experience/observation learning from env.
Satisfaction or dissatisfaction

32
Q

Behaviour (4)

AAV

A

Actions that accord with values
Ways of conducting ourselves (good and bad)
Balanced between personal/collective ways to act (e.g. Trustworthy, successful, polite behaviour)

33
Q

Personal Benefit of Values (4)

A

Provide consistency and self-awareness
Help relationships with others
Inform conflict or difference resolution
Promote compassionate communication

34
Q

Business Benefit of Values (4)

A

Informed strategy formation
The basis for bottom up vision and missions
Strengthen identity
Build between collaborators & wider stakeholders

35
Q

Values Based Management

A

All levels find ways to encourage organisation’s values.
Allow for bottom up growth encouraging individuals
Encourages addressing unavoidable dilemmas, all agree

36
Q

Bottom Up Growth

A

Training, supporting, advising and mentoring individuals from all areas of the organisation.

37
Q

Values Based Recruitment (3)

A

Deliberately employing people that align with current organisational values.
Individuals implicitly attracted to places w/ similar values
More committed to strategic goals

38
Q

Values and Performance

A

Strong values can drive high/low performance

Depends on ability to align with its market/adapt strategy practices

39
Q

How Organisations Continue

A

Must gain/maintain a minimum level of approval from society to function. Necessary to recruit, obtain resources and find markets

40
Q

Values Definition

A

Values are a series of Personal/moral frames that influence behaviours/beliefs, but also need to be motivating concepts that people care passionately about

41
Q

Organisational Structure Definition (Mintzberg, 1979)

A

The sum total of the ways in which it divides its labour into distinct tasks and then achieves co-ordination among them

42
Q

Vertical Specialisation

A

The extent to which responsibilities at different levels are defined

43
Q

Horizontal Specialisation

A

The degree to which tasks are divided among separate people or departments

44
Q

Responsibility

A

A person’s duty to meet the expectations others have of him/her in his/her role

45
Q

Delegation

A

Occurs when one person gives another the authority to undertake specific activities or decisions

46
Q

Span of Control

A

The number of subordinates reporting directly to the person above them in a hierarchy

47
Q

Tall Structure

A

Narrow spans of supervision

48
Q

Flat Structure

A

Wide spans of supervision

49
Q

Empowerment

A

Giving employees greater control over their working lives, by determining how, what, when they complete a task

50
Q

Job Enlargement

A

The process of increasing the number of tasks and responsibilities an employee has.

51
Q

Job Enrichment

A

An increase in the level of responsibility that an employee has in order to increase motivation.

52
Q

Matrix Structure

A

A form of organisation in which the staff are organised into teams that include all necessary specialists.

53
Q

Maslow Concept

A

All humans have the same needs of which need to be met in order to move onto a new important need.

54
Q

Motivation Definition

A

Forces acting on (extrinsic) or within (intrinsic) an individual to cause them to behave in a particular way.

55
Q

Functional Structure

A

Grouping activities and employees according to their professional or functional specialisms

56
Q

Divisional Structure

A

Divisional around the individual products

57
Q

Network Structure

A

Organisations remain independant but join together for certain products or services

58
Q

Huemann et al HRM

A

New project need for a new HR strategy

Need for assigning personnel for projects, dispersement from projects, and linking project assignments to careers

59
Q

HRM Cycle

A

Normal - Selection, employment, release

Project - Selection, Employment, assignment, employment on project release from project, back to employment

60
Q

Three HRM Objectives

A

Attract effective workforce - Recruitment/HRM Planning
Develop effective workforce - Training/Appraisal
Maintain effective workforce - Salary/benefit/relations

61
Q

Mechanical HRM

A

Planning, Organising, Controlling, Monitoring, Reviewing

Control, systems, accepts status quo

62
Q

Dynamic HRM

A

Leading, Liaising, Delegating, Coaching, Motivating

Innovation, challenges status quo

63
Q

Employer gives to workforce HRM

A

Opportunity

Safe working environment

64
Q

Employee gives to employer HRM (3)

A

Loyalty/commitment
Willing to develop skills
Ideas and opinions

65
Q

Limit/damage engagement HRM (5)

A
Job insecurity and fear
Repetitive jobs with short cycle times
Jobs causing high stress–little autonomy/Inflexibility
Unfairness in pay and rewards
Little career progression
66
Q

Human Resource Planning

A

A framework and approach that evolves and aligns human resource management and strategy to support long-term business goals. Matching resources to need

67
Q

Operations Management Definition Stack et al.

A

Operations management is the activity of managing the resources that produce and deliver products and services

68
Q

Ops Man Supply chain management

A

The operations managers needs to procure supplies to integrate and deliver client requirements on time

69
Q

Ops Man Inventory management

A

To develop a sound inventory management system to retrieve the raw materials as and when required

70
Q

Ops Man Quality management

A

Need to be in touch with the quality assurance personnel so that the quality of the deliverables fulfil the agreed quality criteria / compliance standards

71
Q

Operation Managers Objectives (4)

A

Budget - OM depart budget/overheads, salaries, income and other benefits / costs, PM has project budgets
Schedule - OM day busines/schedule, PM project delivery
Staff Management -OM recruit/assign people to projects
Skill Development - OM skills/career development

72
Q

Process Management

A

Aim to continually improve processes, driving change and use business process to align with expectation

73
Q

Supply Chain Management

A

The process of getting materials/services from

the supplier, to the contractor and then to the client

74
Q

Goods/services cost for projects

A

External businesses goods/services in construction industry account for 80% of total project cost

75
Q

Systems SCM is made of

A

Engineering, marketing, manufacturing, Logistics, and management

76
Q

5 Principles of SCM

A
Know the customer
Adopt Lean Philosophy 
Information infrastructure
Integrate business processes
Unite decision support systems
77
Q

SCM Benefits (3)

A

Focus core skills, outsource to partners in supply chain
Establish relationships w/ firms in supply chain
Customer satisfaction enhance economic value. Through improved asset utilisation, cost/profit margins.

78
Q

Barriers for SCM (5)

A
Lack of integration/Fragmentation/trust
Conflict contractu relati.. between client/contractor/supplier
Nature of project
Culture at the workplace
Inappropriate organisation structure,
79
Q

Resolve Barriers of SCM (2)

A

Sub-contractors/suppliers should integrate into coms and reporting structures within their organisational structures
Closer relationships to personnel working on projects.

80
Q

Performance Management

A

Setting and achieving organisational goals that produce desirable business results where efforts must align with overall goals/strategy understood by everyone

81
Q

Performance Management Cycle (3)

A

Planning/Defining - Responsibilities/Skills/Behaviour
Ongoing Feedback/Facilitation/Encouragement
Review - Continuous improvement

82
Q

Power and Control Simons 1995 - Belief System

A

How value / excellence is created through strong relations

Core Values

83
Q

Power and Control Simons 1995 - Boundary System

A

Defines minimum standards and makes clear what negative activities are off-limits/unacceptable
Risks to be Avoided

84
Q

Power and Control Simons 1995 - Interactive

A

Sharing information, ideas and encourage creativity and sense new patterns of change
Strategic Uncertainties

85
Q

Power and Control Simons 1995 - Diagnostic Control

A

Monitor performance / output progress towards targets

Critical Performance Variables

86
Q

Key Performance Indicators

A

HRM - Retention rate, overtime, training
Production - Efficiency rates, costs
Marketing and Sales - Growth, brand value

87
Q

Personal Development Plan

A

Creating an action plan based on awareness, values, reflection, goal-setting and for personal development

88
Q

Organisational Behaviour 3 Part

A

Individuals in organisations micro/personality system
Work Groups (meso-level / cultural system)
How organisations behave (macro-level / social system)

89
Q

Organisational Behaviour Definition (OB)

A

Human behaviour in orgs, the interface between human behaviour-orgs, and orgs itself

90
Q

What OB Covers (6)

A
Organisational values and behaviour
Motivation
Relationships
Communications
Organisational behaviour
Attitudes/Personality
Counterproductive work behaviour (Dark side of work)
91
Q

OB Iceberg

A

Visible organisational interactions

Stress, emotions, feelings, loyalties ect.

92
Q

SMART

A
Specific
Measurable 
Attainable
Relevant 
Timely