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Flashcards in Construction Industry and its Management Deck (89)
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1
Q

Prof Duccio Turin definition of Construction

A

Need to consider its :
Output - What type of building
Process - The people involved
Characteristic

2
Q

Brief 3

A

Determines requirements
Clients
Users

3
Q

Land 3

A

Lawyers
Chartered Surveyors
Land Use

4
Q

Design 3

A

Consultants - Arch, Eng, QS
Statutory Consent - Local Authority
Standards - Proff Institutions

5
Q

Procurement 3

A

Purchasing goods/services
Contractual Arrangements
Tendering Process

6
Q

Construction 3

A

Components, Plant, Labour, Capital
Sub/contractors
Standards/Building control/Safety

7
Q

Occupation 4

A

Equipment
Fixtures/Fittings
IT
Furniture

8
Q

Maintenance 1

A

Facility Management

9
Q

Building Cycle

A

Where the circle leads back to Land

Brief, Design, Land, Procurement, Construction, Occupation, Maintenance

10
Q

Characteristics of Construction

A

Buildings Expensive
Building process is large and complex
Fragmented Industry

11
Q

How did the BuiEnv develop

A

Urbanisation, Building type, Standards/control, Management

12
Q

Early Civilisation (3)

A

Relied on natural resources: Reeds, Trees, Leaves
Needed for Shelter and portable
Skills within the family

13
Q

Roman Impact (3)

A

753 BC to 27 BC and 64 AD to 1453 AD
Sophisticated structures/infrastructure/towns
Build Mats, stone, concrete, bricks, tiles, decoration
Built largely by the Military

14
Q

Dark Ages

A

Rural Farming focus around monasteries

Black Death 4m to 2.4m lack of tradesmen cost increase

15
Q

17th, 18th, 19th Century

A

Wool Industry, Industrial buildings, Towns, large estates
Increased Building Demand/complexity
Formation of Bodies

16
Q

Industrial Revolution

A

Wool/steam engine - Factories, mining, transport
Urban housing for rural-urban migration workers
Public sector buildings, gov/edu/health
Disease/hygiene problems led to gov planning/control

17
Q

Number of listed buildings

A

500,000 England and Wales

18
Q

Evolution of Management of Projects

A

Created split design/construction, fragmented design/main contractor has responsibility of delivery. Discontented results created the project manager

19
Q

Medieval Period (4)

A

600-1500
12 trade guilds where tradesmen followed work
Design followed trade practices
Large Projects led by master tradesman or mason

20
Q

Gothic Style (2)

A

Pointed Arch, Rib Vaulting (ceiling), Flying Butress

Enabled Slender, Higher, Complex structures

21
Q

Renaissance Period (4)

A

1500-1600
Grand Tour, introduced to other European designs
Buildings influenced by crafts
Introduction of architect and contracting unit

22
Q

Classical Period (4)

A

1600-1800
Architect established, designed and contracted to build
Emergence of Contractors
Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones

23
Q

Victorian Period

A

1800-1900
Introduced Engineer
Institutionalisation of construction
Seperation fo design and build

24
Q

20th Century (5)

A

Commercialisation of clients and buisness
Unique buildings not necessarily follow style
Functionalism of design
Demand for complex buildings
Increased Fragmentation

25
Q

3 Factors evolving planning

A

Industrialisation
Urbanisation and population growth
Overcrowding and Disease

26
Q

Town Planning

A

-Diff Disciplines: Public Health, Building control, Housing Management,
Town/Country Planning Asso 1899 Sir Ebenezer Howard
Letchworth/Welwyn

27
Q

Drivers of Construction Demand (Macro) (3)

A

Economic Growth
Political/Economic Policy
Population Growth

28
Q

Drivers of Construction Demand (Micro)

A

Business activity/investment
Response to society demands
Maintaining the building/building stock

29
Q

Client

A

An individual or organisation that commissions the construction of a building

30
Q

Factors effecting the Con. Industry

A

Nature of the demand
Diversity of types of project
Low barriers to entry/exit for firms
Manner of industry evolution

31
Q

Manner of industry evolution

A

Seperation of design and construction and manner of work carried out.

32
Q

Broad Definition of Construction

A

Manufacturers of building products, (equipment/ components), various professional services by architects, surveyors, engineers and property managers’

33
Q

Narrow Definition of Construction

A

Estimating the activity of firms that construct and maintain buildings and infrastructure – that is, just those businesses that undertake on-site activities

34
Q

Overview - Nature of Con. Industry (8)

A
Highly fragmented, 
involving many organisations/ parties,
highly complex, 
high uncertainly, 
high levels of risk, 
proceeds in sequential stages, 
expensive,
dangerous
35
Q

Characteristics of Projects (6)

A
Uniqueness - Location and issies
Clearly defined objectives - Time cost Quality
Fixed timescale
Team of people - Teamwork
No practice or rehearsal 
Change
36
Q

Impact of Large Projects

A

Creates employment
Impact environment
Cen/Loc Gov - Envi, Planning, Quality/workman standards

37
Q

Product Life Cycle (PLC) (9)

A

Inception, Feasibility, Strategy, Pre Construction, Construction, Commissioning, Occupation, In-use, start

38
Q

Consideration for each PLC Stage

A

Scope
Participants and their roles
Key activities and output

39
Q

Scope Management

A

Defining what work is required and then making sure all of that work – and only that work – is done.

40
Q

Input to Construction Process (7) Management

A

Need, Land, Labour, Materials, Plant, Information, Captial

41
Q

Output of Construction Process (5) Management

A

Finished Building, Investment, Employment, Profit, Carbon Emissions

42
Q

Fragmentation

A

Lots of parties involved although mostly for short periods of time in the process

43
Q

Health and Safety

A

1 of the highest fall/fatality per 1000

Workers 2x likely, disabling injury than other industries

44
Q

Health and Safety Statistics

A

5% of total employment
31% of total fatalities
10% of major/substantial injuries
Last 25 years 3,000 people have died

45
Q

Overview - Management of Con. Industry

A

Over last 100 years the design & construction split and lack of manager has caused conflict and an adversarial culture. Introduction of PM a response to this problem.

46
Q

Widening Procurement Options

A
Package Deal/Turnkey
Management Contracting 
Design and build/design and develop
Construction Management
Contractor Fee not fixed Price, able influence design
47
Q

CIOB PM Defintion Abbreviated

A

Overall planning, control and co-ordination of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting a client’s requirements, ensuring completion on time, within cost and to required quality standards

48
Q

Basic PM Functions (4)

A

Scope Management
Time Management
Quality Management
Cost Management

49
Q

Integrative PM Functions (4)

A

Risk Management
HR Management
Communications Management
Contract/Procurement Management

50
Q

What is PM About (4)

A

Achieving Objectives
Managing Groups
Knowledge of Technical Process
Analysis and Control

51
Q

Qualities/Skills PM Need (4)

A

Develop/maintain team spirit
Organise and Lead
Right qualities of temperament
Maturity of judgement

52
Q

Project Management Techniques (5)

A
Project Scope
Planning and scheduling
Financial Management
Stakeholder Management
Risk Management
53
Q

3 Measures of Project Success

A

Project Functionality - Performance of final product
PM Effectiveness - Delivery in accordance to objectives
Participants Commercial Performance - Whether PT gained financially from their contribution.

54
Q

Categories of Land Owners

A
Traditional - Church crown aristocracy
Industrial - firm
Financial - institution
Developers - for profit
Householders - home owners
Conservation Charity - national parks
55
Q

Value of Property Effected by (8)

A
Size/Quality
Location
Age
Local Demand
Availability of similar Property
Local Transport
Local amenities 
Value of similar properties
56
Q

Development Appraisal

A

Compares Total Revenue with Total Cost of scheme
How much land/construction cost
Cost of borrowing
Project rental income/investment yield

57
Q

Development Appraisal Variables (7)

A
Land Price
Building Cost
Project Cost
Rental Income
Interest Yields 
Investment Yields 
Time - Length uncertainty
58
Q

Optimum Property Investor Position

A

A prime property
Good quality product
Long pre-let w/ blue-chip (does well in downturn) tenant
A fully repairing & insuring lease arrangement
Regular upward rent reviews

59
Q

Current Major Issues in Con.

A

30% of projects still exceed their cost budget by 20% and 75% miss target completion by 10-15%.
Significant moves to change industry, w/ more single source arrangements + collaborative working.

60
Q

Emerson Report (criticism of industry)

A

Emerson Report (1962) concerned with relationships in the building process – lack of liaison, separation of education of professionals,

61
Q

Banwell Reports (criticism of industry)

A

Banwell Reports (1964 & 1967) concerned with project organisation

62
Q

Higgins & Jessop Report (criticism of industry)

A

Higgins & Jessop Report (1965) identified the need to co-ordinate design & construction
First to suggest the overall co-ordination role

63
Q

Drivers for Change in Con.

A
Quality driven agenda
Commitment to people
Committed leadership
Focus on customer
Product team integration
64
Q

Improving the project process

A

Product development
Product implementation
Production of components
Partnering the supply chain

65
Q

Tagets for improvement

A
Capital Cost - -10%
Construction Time - -10%
Defects - -20%
Accidents - -20%
Productivity - +10%
Turnover/Profit - +10%
66
Q

Egan Report

A
1998
30% of construction is reworked,
Labour is only 40-60% efficient,
10% of materials are wasted,
Accidents can account for 3-6% of total project costs
67
Q

Change to Collaborative Culture

A
Integrated teams
No blame culture
Sharing ‘pain & gain’
Partnering
Frameworks.
68
Q

Project Management changes

A

Introduction of client-facing manager of overall process

Use of a PMgr now mandatory on public sector projects

69
Q

Construction 2025

A

UK should be in 2025

  • 33% in both initial cost and the whole life cost
  • 50% inception-completion time new build/refurb asset
  • 50% in greenhouse gas emissions inbuilt environment
  • 50% trade gap all exports/imports for product/materials
70
Q

Drivers of Con 2025 delivery

A

Improved image of the industry
Increased capability in the workforce
A clear view of future work opportunities
Improvement in client capability & procurement
A strong & resilient supply chain
Effective research & innovation

71
Q

Types of Castles

A

Shell Keep - Round/Curtain Wall
Hall Keep - Large multi storey
High Curtain wall - Defence structure

72
Q

Evolution of PM

A

Master tradesman PM
More commercialisation, control cost client QS
Architect taking over design
1800 split of architect and contractor
Design and construction kept drifting apart
Formation of professional bodies

73
Q

Tudor

A
1485-1560
Non religious show off wealth
Steep Roof
Fireplaces
Small Windows
74
Q

Elizabethan / Jacobean

A
1560-1620
Large mansions for aristocracy 
Grand Tour
Jetting / Dutch Gables
More sophistication of housing
75
Q

Planning Policy

A

Process of policy making, control and implementation.
Public health - Indust rev hygeine/disease
House Man - C’cil Housing, prevent mass cheap housing
Building COntrol - Important over time

76
Q

Inception

A
Initial Stage 
Statement of objectives
Environmental Mandate
Approval of feasibility 
Appointment of PM
77
Q

Feasibility

A

Establishing/reviewing options to achieve objectives
Understand client demands/appraising options
Financial viability
Client decision to proceed to strategy

78
Q

Strategy

A

PM takes clients preferred options
Assembling the team
Establish infrastructure for managing/controlling project
Facility Management/Procurement strategy

79
Q

Pre - Construction

A

Implement plans of strategy stage
Execution of design process, obtaining legal consent
Client approval with construction works

80
Q

Construction

A

Facilities construction defined by design

Process involves greatest n.o of people/orgs/expenditure

81
Q

Commissioning

A

Confirms building services systems are installed
Commission strategy/schedule
Training of client staff

82
Q

Completion

A

Formal transfer of completed facilities
Single or phased over time
Ensure client has knowledge/capability to operate
Final inspections

83
Q

Evo Man Project : Middle Ages

A

Client
Master Mason organises trade guilds
Measurer equate work to pay

84
Q

Evo Man Project : 16th

A

Introduction of Architect

Functional specialists

85
Q

Evo Man Project : 18th

A

Introduction of Engineers, QS, Main contractor
Subcontractors
QS - 2 Measurer Client+Contractor

86
Q

Evo Man Project : 20th

A

Introduction of PM, design teams

87
Q

Estimate Value of Property

A

Similar property
Comparative contractors - cost of construction
Residual method - future estimate
Investment - opportunity cost

88
Q

High Net to Growth Ratio

A

Maximising floorspace to let out

Minimise circulation space

89
Q

Latham Report

A

Need for better teamwork and co-operation