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Flashcards in Teratogens Deck (28)
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1

ACE/ARB

Increase risk of oligohydramnios and fetal kidney damage, decreased skull ossification

2

Tetracyclines (Doxycycline)

Interfere w/ fetal bone and tooth development
Gray/yellow discoloration of teeth

3

Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin)

Associated w/ bone/cartilage deformaties and arthropathy

4

Sulfonamides (TMP-SMX)

Class C
First trimester - interferes with folic acid metabolism
Third trimester - increases risk of kernicterus (possibly)

5

Retinoids (isotretinoin)

CNS abnl, cardiovascular abnl, facial abnl, spontaneous abortion

6

Lithium

Congenital heart disease, esp Ebstein's anomaly

7

NSAIDs

Increase risk of miscarriage
May promote premature closure of fetal ductus arteriosus

8

Mycophenolate

(Immunosuppressant)
Ear/face congenital malformations
Increases risk of first trimester miscarriages

9

Thalidomide

(Immunosuppressant)
Flipper limbs (phocomelia)

10

Warfarin

Spontaneous abortion, IUgR, CNS abnl, facial abnl, MR, Dandy-Walker malformation (use heparin or LMWH)

11

Efavirenz

NNRTI (teratogenic)

12

Finasteride

Blocks testosterone -> DHEA
Femininization / genitalia abnl in male fetus

13

Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, etc)

CN VIII damage (deafness)
Skeletal abnormalities, renal defects

14

Anti-seizure medications in general

NTD, facial abnormalities (clefting)

15

Carbamazepine

Facial abnl, NTD
Fingernail hypoplasia

16

Chemotherapeutics (all classes)

Intrauterine fetal demise (30%)
Severe IUGR, multiple anatomic abnl, MR, spontaneous abortion, secondary neoplasms

17

Diazepam

Cleft palate

18

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

Anatomic genital tract abnl +
Vaginal and cervical adenocarcinoma later in life

19

Heparin

Mild prematurity, IUFD (much safer than warfarin)

20

OCPs

Spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy (overall fairly safe)

21

Phenobarbital

Neonatal withdrawal

22

Phenytoin

Facial abnl (cleft)

23

Valproic acid

NTD (1%), facial abnl (cleft)

24

Cocaine

Abruptio placentae
Arrythmia, MI, stroke in mother

25

Ethanol

FAS (MR, IUGR, facial abnl, fetal demise)

26

Opioids

Narcotic withdrawal

27

Tobacco

IUGR, prematurity

28

Radiation

>10 rads risk of fetal malformation, small increased risk of childhood leukemias