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Flashcards in Test #1 Deck (61)
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1

Areas of normal uptake in bone scintigraphy?

Long bone metaphyses, thyroid, kidneys, sternum, spine, S.I., bladder

2

Type of forces that produce fxs?

Torsion, compression, shearing, rotation, angulation(bending)

3

Types of incomplete fxs?

Green stick, torus, bowing, stress

4

What to look for to detect a fx?

Abnormal line of lucency, offset of the cortex, increased bone density, soft tissue swelling, obliteration or displacement of myofascial planes, periosteal & endosteal responses, joint effusion, intracapsular fat (FBI sign), double cortical line, irregular metaphyseal corners, zone of impaction

5

Factors which influence fx healing?

Pt's age, site & type of fx, position of the fragments, status of blood supply, quality of immobilization or fixation, complications

6

What are the phases of the circulatory/inflammatory phase?

Cellular phase, vascular phase, primary callus phase

7

Steps during cellular phase

Hematoma, Inflammatory response, granulation tissue replaces the hematoma

8

Steps during the vascular phase

Ingrowth of new blood vessels leading to hyperemia, increased osteoclastic activity, hair growth, tan skin

9

Circulatory phase occurs when?

First 5-30 days

10

What happens during the Reparative/metabolic phase?

Callus formation becomes more orderly & woven bone is replaced by more mature bone

11

How long does the Reparative/Metabolic phase last?

4-6 weeks in the young & 6-15 weeks in adults

12

What happens during the remodeling/mechanical phase?

Bone is deposited & removed according to Wolff's law, restoration of the medullary cavity & bone marrow

13

How long does the Remodeling/Mechanical phase last?

May take months or years to complete

14

What happens in first 5-10 days following a fx?

Resorption of the fx line occurs creating an increase in width of the actual fx line

15

What happens 10-30 days following a fx?

"Veil" of new bone formation adjacent to fx site (callus)

16

Immediate complications of delayed union/nonunion?

Articular injury, compartment syndrome, fat emboli

17

Intermediate complications of delayed union/nonunion?

Osteomyelitis, hardware failure, RSDJ, myositis, delayed union

18

Delayed complications of delayed union/nonunion?

Osteonecrosis, DJD, osteoporosis, nonunion, malunion

19

Contributing factors to nonunion?

- Distraction
- Inadequate immobilization (99% of problems)
- Infection
- Impaired circulation (avascular necrosis)
- Soft tissue b/w fragments

20

M/C site for non-union?

Mid-clavicle, ulna, tibia

21

5 P's assoc. w/ Volkmanns Ischemic Contracture?

- Pulselessness
- Pain
- Pallor
- Paresthesia
- Paralysis

22

Premature DJD is M/C where?

Weight bearing joints (hip, knee, ankle)

23

What views are in a head series?

AP Caldwell, AP Towns, L & R Lateral, Base view, Waters view (shows sinuses)

24

Most spinal trauma is secondary to?

MVAs & falls

25

Most common sites for spinal fxs?

C1-C2 - cord injury less common b/c canal is large
C5-C7 - canal is smaller so cord injuries more common
T12-L1

26

What type of forces disrupt ligaments?

Rotational & shearing forces

27

What is located in the anterior column of the spine?

ALL, ant. annulus fibrosis, anterior body

28

What is located in the middle column of the spine?

PLL, pos. annulus fibrosis, pos. body

29

What is located in the pos. column of the spine?

Neural arch & intervening soft tissues

30

For an injury to be considered stable what column has to be intact?

Middle column