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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (90)
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1

The femur, ulna, and radius are examples of

Long bones

2

The talks and capitate are examples of what?

Short bones

3

The scapula and sternum are examples of what?

Flat bones

4

The sphenoid bone and the vertebra are examples of what?

Irregular bones

5

The patella is an example of what?

Sesamoid bone

6

Grow out from the bone

Process

7

Openings, holes, grooves for structures
Indent in the bone

Cavities

8

rounded prominence that articulates with another bone

Condyle

9

a small, flat, smooth surface; serve for attachment to other
structures

Facet

10

Prominent, rounded projection @ proximal end

Head

11

Prominent, ridgelike, narrow projection

Crest

12

a small projection located on or above a condyle

Epicondyle

13

ridge less prominent than crest

Line

14

a projection from a bone

Process

15

Very large projection

Trochanter

16

An obvious round, or roughened lump (larger than tubercle)

Tuberosity

17

a smaller rounded bump bone

Tubercle

18

A cut out area for nerves or vessels

Notch

19

a hole completely through the bone

Foramen

20

hollow, depression, or flattened surface

Fossa

21

very small pit or depression

Fovea

22

furrow or groovelike depression on a bone

Groove

23

cavity or hollow space within a bone

Sinus

24

Closer to the head

Superior

25

Farther away from the head

Inferior

26

The front of the body

Anterior

27

The back of the body

Posterior

28

Closer to the middle of the body’s medial line

Medial

29

Farther away from the body’s mid line

Distal

30

Closer to the trunk of the body (only relates to limbs

Proximal

31

Farther away from the trunk of the body (only relates to the limbs)

Distal

32

Cranial is synonymous for

Superior

33

Caudal is synonymous for

Inferior

34

Dorsal is synonymous with

Posterior

35

Ventral is synonymous with

Ventral

36

On back

Supine

37

On stomach

Prone

38

relating to or denoting the side of the body opposite to that on which a particular structure or condition occurs.

Contralateral

39

Anterior side of the cubital fossa (elbow pit)

Antecubital

40

Relating to the back part of the leg (knee pit)

Popliteal

41

Relating to the head

Cephalic

42

•Divides body into left and right halves
•Terms: medial and Lateral
•Actions: Flexion and Extension
•Midsagittal: midline (divides into 2 symmetrical halves)

Sagittal Plane

43

•Divides body into front and back portions
•Terms: anterior and posterior
•Actions: abduction and adduction

Frontal (Coronal) Plane

44

•Divides body into upper and lower portions
•Terms: superior and inferior
•Actions: rotation

Transverse (horizontal) Plane

45

A straight line around which an object rotates

Axis

46

horizontally posterior-anterior… frontal plane (divides ant/post)

Sagittal Axis

47

Horizontally left-right… sagittal plane (divides left/right)

Frontal Axis

48

Vertically inferior-superior transverse plane (divides inferior/superior)

Vertical Axis

49

Bends a joint

Flexion

50

Straightens a joint

Extension

51

Moving away from the mid line

Abduction

52

Moving medially toward the midline

Addiction

53

Combination of flex, ext, abd, add

Circumduction

54

Turning away from midline

External Rotation

55

Turning in towards midline

Internal Rotation

56

Anterior movement “protrude”

Protraction

57

Posterior movement “retreat”

Retraction

58

At 90* of abduction, the arm moves backwards

Horizontal Abduction

59

Point your toes
Press gas pedal

Plantarflexion

60

Bringing foot towards you
–Let off the gas pedal

Dorsiflexion

61

Turn in

Inversion

62

Turn out

Eversion

63

Bending the pinky
towards the ulna

Ulnar Deviation

64

Bending the thumb
towards the radius

Radial deviation

65

Palm faces upwards
–Holding a bowl of soup

Supination

66

Jaw down

Depression

67

Jaw up

Elevation

68

Involuntary muscles in organs

Smooth muscle

69

Only in heart

Cardiac muscle

70

Muscles that move voluntarily

Skeletal muscle

71

Run parallel to the length of the muscle

Parallel muscle

72

Shorter fibers that run obliquely to their tendons

Pennate muscle

73

Attach muscle to bone
•Specifically to the periosteum of the bone
•Composed of dense connective tissue shaped into bundles of parallel collagen fibers
•Different shapes

Tendons

74

Connect bones together at a joint
•Strengthen and Stabilize joints
•Made of dense connective tissue (poorly vascularized)
•Fibers have more uneven configuration

Ligament

75

Is for form of dense connective tissue
•Continuous sheet of fibrous membrane located beneath the skin and around muscles
•Superficial and Deep fascia

Fascia

76

Holds an organ or tissue in place
•Transverse thickening of the deep fascia which straps down tendons
•Most are superficial and accessible

Retinaculum

77

Pulse can be found in?

Artery

78

Arteries are ______ than the vein

Deeper

79

•Small, fluid filled sack that reduces friction between 2 structures
•Primarily around joints
•Sometimes between muscles

Bursa

80

1. Ligaments
2. Soft tissues (muscles)
3. Bony architecture of the joint

What limits joint movement

81

Joined by connective tissue fiber & are immovable
•Subcategories = sutures joint or syndesmosis (ligamentous; slightly moveable)

Fibrous joint

82

Joined by hyaline or fibrocartilage, allows slight movement
•Subcategories = synchondroses and symphyses

Cartilaginous joint

83

Freely moveable
•Are diarthroidal

Synovial joints

84

one bone across the surface of another

Gliding movement

85

movements change the angle between bones

Angular movement

86

movement around a bone's long axis

Rotation movement

87

part of the ascending pathway of the brain

Afferent

88

part of the descending pathway of the brain

Efferent

89

Motor units are recruited from smallest to largest
–Slow-twitch, low-force fibers before fast-twitch, high-force (these muscle types fatigue faster)

Size principle

90

I.Olfactory
II.Optic
III.Oculomotor
IIII.Trochlear
V.Trigeminal
VI.Abducent

Cranial nerved