Test 1 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1 - Vocabulary Deck (100)
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1

logial equivalence

when statements express the same fact in different words

2

cell

a highly organizaed compartment bounded by a membrane

3

hypothesis

a proposed explanation of facts

4

controlled experiments

have two or more groups that difer only in some factor we want to study

5

replicated experiments

each group has more than one replicate, which should not have anything in common except the factor being studied

6

the theory of special creation

each species is a unique "type" created by God
**DISPROVED

7

the theory of evolution

species have changed (evolved) over time

8

fossil

a physical trace of an organism that lived in the past

9

the fossil record

the colection of all known fossils

10

vestigial trait

a structure that has no function, but is similar to functioning structures in related species

11

homology

a similarity between organisms due to common ancestry

12

genetic homology

homology at the level of genetic coding

13

developmental homology

homology in that traits of embryos

14

structural homology

homology at the level of developed organisms

15

variation

the individuals that make a population vary in the traits they possess

16

heritability

some traits can be inherited by offspring

17

differential reproductive success

in each generation, some organisms have more offspring than others

18

selection

reproductive success in not random, but is influenced by differences in traits

19

fitness (darwinian fitness)

average reproductive success, given a suite of heritable traits

20

the theory of inheritance of acquirede characteristics

the idea that individuals change in response to their evnironment, and pass those changes of to offspring
**DISPROVED

21

the theory of goal directed evolution

the idea that organisms evolve towards specific goals
**DISPROVED

22

bidirectional evolution

organisms gain and then lose traits

23

acclimation

the ability of organisms to respond directly to their environment
- does not affect the traits of their offspring

24

adaptation

the genetic change that increases the fitness of organisms
- passed to offspring

25

locus (loci)

the location where the gene can occur

26

allele

a particular version of a gene

27

heterozygous

an organism with different alleles at a particular locus

28

homozygous

an organism with two copies of the same allele at a particular locus

29

genotype

the collection of an individuals genes

30

phenotype

the collection of an individuals physical traits