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1

How does the principle of allocation apply to the transgenic super mice example?

- doubling the growth of the mice reduced resources to other features
- mice ate less, stopped reproducing, slept more, caught more diseases, and didn't live as long

2

What trend do we see in a populations of high density?

- natural selection favours adaptations that enhance survival and reproduction with few resources

3

What trend do we see in populations of low density?

- natural selection favous adaptations that enhance rapid and elevated rates of reproduction

4

What kinds of growth pyramid can be seen in a population?

- rapid growth
- slow growth
- zero growth/decrease

5

Why do the Cthamalus barnacles have a different fundamental niche and realized niche?

- they are outcompeted by the balanus barnacles
- they are forced to the very top of the rock face (aka the top of their fundamental niche), because the balanus can't live there

6

What is an example of Batesian Mimicry?

- wasp beetles mimicing wasp colouring to seem more dangerous than they really are

7

What is an example of an inducible defence?

- mussels allocate more resources to shell strength and attachment to rock faces when there are predators around

8

What happens when a keystone predators is removed from it's ecosystem?

- the organisms that used to be prey for the predator grow in abundance
- this organism may outcompete other organisms in the area and reduce the biodiversity

9

What did Sousa test in his rock experiment? What were his findings?

- how disturbances affect an environment
- specifically how disturbances to a rock affect the intertidal plants and animals who affix to that rock
- found that intermediate amounts of disturbance had the greatest biodiversity over rarely disturbed rocks and often disturbed rocks (intermediate disturbance hypothesis)

10

Why is the idea of a climax community flawed?

- no area is truly stable, there will always be some amount of disturbance
- mature communities are more complex and always changing

11

What features that affect population might be found on a bigger, closer island over a smaller, farther island?

- higher immigration
- shorter distance for colonizers to travel
- lower extinction
- more resources
- more diverse habitat to be partitioned

12

What are some negative impacts that humans have on the ecosystem?

- oil spills
- industries
- poor logging practices

13

Who was Rachel Carson?

- journalist, advocate for biologist
- wrote "Silent Spring"
- exposed effects of DDT on the environment and helped get it banned in North America

14

What are some indicators that we have overshot the Earth's carrying capacity?

- decrease in vital ecosystems
- decrease in non-renewable resources
- ozone depletion
- climate change
- biodiversity loss
- deforestation
- fisheries collapse

15

What are similarities and differences between the expansionist perspective and the steady-state perspective?

- they both focus on a growing economy as something that is good
- expansionist sees the environment as being infinite, steady-state sees the environment as finite
- expansionist dumps waste, steady-state recycles

16

What are the goals of conservation biology?

- to offset the biodiversity crisis
- to preserve indivudual species
- to sustain ecosystems
- to maintain genetic variability

17

What often happens to small populations?

- small populations lead to inbreeding and random genetic drift
- leads to loss of genetic variability
- reduces individual fitness and population adaptability
- leads to lower reproduction and higher mortality
- leads to an even smaller population

18

What are some values of biodiversity?

- resources
- commercial value
- recreational and aesthetic value
- scientific value
- self-preservation
- intrinsic value

19

What are the causes of extinction?

- habitat destruction
- habitat fragmentation
- introduction of exotic species
- overexploitation of resources
- disruption of food chains
- pollution
- global warming

20

What did various researchers find on easter island?

- Flenley and King: used that pollen samples to discover that there was less palm tree pollen at the time that settlers arrived
- Steadman: island fauna had changed
- Diamond: discovered that the settlers caused deforestation, which led to soil erosion and a lack of trees for fishing canoes

21

What were some lessons learned from the Tragedy of the Commons?

- overuse and exploitation of the natural vegetation by having so many cattle caused soil erosion when it rained

22

What are some obstacles with commons?

- they are difficult to protect since there is no direct owner
- no one wants to assist with costs
- resources are not monitored effectively

23

What are some of the goals for wild life corridors?

- allow for recolonization
- allows for gene flow
- introduces new alleles that would possibly counteract deleterious effects of inbreeding or genetic drift

24

What is one example of a sustainable operation?

- collin's pine company
- family-owned logging company
- tree planting and selective logging allow them to continuously replenish their resources

25

What may happen when the world's population reaches 8 billion in the next 2 decades if we haven't found a solution to sustainability?

- more wars over the commons
- social justice issues