Test 2 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 - Vocabulary Deck (62)
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1

Anthropoid

The subgroup of primes including apes and monkeys

2

Hominins

People and our upright ancestors

3

Human Complex Foraging Strategies

Relying on many types of food, or types of food that are hard to get our process

4

Bimodality

Having two peaks in distribution
(Ex. human height: one distribution peak for men, another for woman)

5

Oldowan Tools

Tools made of stone

6

Scavenging

Eating meat that is found, or taken from predators

7

Behaviour

An action or a response to a stimulus

8

Innate Behaviour

A behaviour that is developmentally fixed and inborn

9

Instinctive Behaviour

A behavioural pattern that reliable develops in animals that receive normal upbringing/adequate nutrition

10

Proximate Causation

Describes how a behaviour is initiated or expressed
(immediate cause and effect of the behaviour)

11

Ultimate Causation

Describes why a behaviour exists (the adaptive value of the behaviour)

12

Fixed Action Pattern

A highly stereotyped, innate behaviour, which is conducted to completion once activated by a sensory cue

13

Sign Stimulus

An external sensory stimulus, which triggers a fixed action pattern

14

Releaser

A type of sign stimulus that is a signal from one individual to another

15

Optimal Foraging Behaviour

Animals forage to maximize the amount of intake of usable energy with the costs and risks of findng and ingesting food

16

Habituation

Learning to ignore unimportant, irrelevant stimuli, or repeated stimuli that do not provide proper feedback

17

Imprinting

When an organism (usually just born) becomes irreversibly attached to another organism (often the parent)

18

Associative Learning

The ability of an organism to associate one stimulus with another stimulus

19

Associative Learning - Classical Conditioning

The association of an irrelevant, arbitrary stimulus with a fixed physiological response associated with reward or punishment

20

Associative Learning - Operant Conditioning

When an animal learns to associate one of its own behaviours with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behaviour

21

Insight Learning

The correct behaviour solves the problem on the 1st try and involves reasoning

22

Observational Learning

The ability of animals to learn by observing the acions of others

23

Play

A type of behaviour that has no apparent goal, but utilizes movements which are closely related with goal-directed behaviours, physiological, social, cognitive practice

24

Kinesis

A change in activity rate in resposne to a stimulus (multidirectional)

25

Taxis

A motion or orientation of a cell, organism, or part in response to an external stimulus (unidirectional)

26

Agnostic Behaviour

Threatening/submissive behaviours

27

Altruistic Behaviour

A behaviour that reduces an individuals personal welfare but benefits the recipient's fitness

28

Reciprocal Altruism

Altruism in which the organism who originally gets help, will give help at another time

29

Intrasexual Selection

Males compete for mates and are usually indiscriminate regarding mating

30

Intersexual Selection

Females are usually choosy regarding mating