Flashcards in Exam Notes - Vocabulary Deck (94)

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## Population

### a group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same general area at the same time

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## Ecology

### the study of how organisms interact with their environment

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## Population Ecology

### studies how and why the population changes over time

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## Survivorship

### the proportion of offspring produced that survive to a specific age

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## Survivorship Curves

### graphs that plot the relative numbers in a cohort, which are still living at each age

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## Type I Survivorship Curve

### Survivorship throughout life is high, the majority of individuals approach the maximum life span, high death rate amongst older individuals

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## Type II Survivorship Curve

### Most individuals have a relatively constant survivorship over their life time

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## Type III Survivorship Curve

### High death rates are seen early in life, with high survivorship after maturity

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## Life History

### Indicates how an organism allocates resources to reproduction, growth, and other activities associated with its survival

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## Principle of Allocation

### If an organism allocates energy to one function, it reduces the amount of energy available to other functions

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## Density

### the number of individuals per unit area or volume at a given time

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## Direct Counts

### counting all the individuals in a sample of representative plots in order to determine the population density

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## Indirect Indicators

### indirect ways to determine a population, including the number of nests/burrows, tracks, fecal droppings, etc

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## Mark Recapture Method

###
a way to estimate population size by tagging and releasing animals of a population

- equation: N = number marked 1st time x total number 2nd time / number of marked recaptures in 2nd catch

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## Dispersion

### the pattern of spacing among the individuals within the geographical boundaries of the population

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## Clumped Dispersion

### little groups

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## Uniform Dispersion

### evenly spaced out individuals

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## Random Dispersion

### randomly spaced out individuals

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## Exponential Population Growth Equation

###
- J-shaped curve

- describes an ideal population

- population's potential increase in ideal conditions (unlimited resources) due to instrinsic rate of increase

- dN/dt = rmaxN

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## Logistic Population Growth Equation

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- S-shaped curve

- describes a more realistic population

- assumes that population growth slows as the population size approaches the carrying capacity of the environment

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## Carrying Capacity

### (k) - the maximum stable population size that the particular environment can support with its available resources

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## Demography

### the study of factors that determine the structure and size of populations through time

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## Age Structure

### relative numbers of individuals of each age in a population

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## Generation Time

### average span of time between birth of individuals and the birth of their offspring

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## Sex Ratio

### the proportion of individuals of each sex found in a population

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## Community

### a biological community is composed of different interacting species living in a defined area

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## Richness of a Community

### the number of different species in a community

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## Relative Abundance of a Community

### relative numners (proportion) of individuals of each species in a community as a whole

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## Biodiversity of a Community

### number and relative abundance of species in a biological community (combine richness and relative abundance)

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