Test 2 - Questions Flashcards Preview

Biology 1M03 > Test 2 - Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 - Questions Deck (40)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are apes better at than monkeys?

- swinging through trees
- being more upright
- hanging

2

Why are there so many different names/subcategories for humans?

Observer Bias

3

Are apes a clade?

Highly debated - however if apes are a clade, we are therefore apes

4

Why is it possible that chimps have evolved more than we think they have?

- observer bias (we pay more attention to ourselves than chimps)
- hard to study ourselves

5

What adaptations evolved from complex foraging strategies?

- clever hands
- walking upright
- big brains
- male-female cooperation
- social behaviour

6

How did complex foraging promote cooperation in people?

- female/male: child care isn't suitd to hunting lifestylfe
- people: promoted people with different skills to work together
- hunters: hunting success is highly variable

7

What are some animals other than hominins that make tools?

- chimps
- elephants
- crows
- octopi

8

When did early humans replace other hominins?

Around 2mya

9

When did modern humans replace early humans?

Around 0.2mya

10

Where did modern humans evolve?

Africa

11

Is behaviour a result of nature or nurture?

Both! Behaviour is a result of both genetics and environmental influences

12

What is the difference between a sign stimulus and a releaser?

A sign stimulus is a stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern, however a releaser is a stimulus specifically between two organisms, which then triggers the FAP

13

What are some traits of learned behaviour?

- it's durable
- it's usually adaptive
- it may be modified by experience
- it may be constrained by evolution
- individuals may improve behaviours over time as related to maturation

14

What is the use of play as a behaviour?

It can be used to develop skills

15

What is the difference between kinesis and taxis?

Kinesis is multidirectional, where taxis is uni-directional and it's stimulus is usually sound, light, heat, or a magnetic field

16

Why do females usually invest more in parental investment?

Because reproductive success is limited by ability to raise offspring

17

Why do males invest more in mating effort?

Because reproductive success is limited by access to fertilizable eggs

18

What is a sex role reversal?

When men care for the offspring, females compete for mates

19

What is the equation for inclusive fitness?

Inclusive Fitness = individual (direct) fitness + indirect fitness

20

What are the variables in Hamiltons Rule?

- r = coefficient of relatedness
- B = benefit to the recipient of the behaviour
- C = cost of the altruistic act to the donor's individual fitness

21

What are some morphological features of Modern Homo Sapiens?

- large, round skull
- high forehead
- protruding chin
- long limbs
- less robust skeleton

22

Where and when did homo sapiens evolve?

Africa, 200 000 years ago

23

What does the low genetic diversity of humans tell us?

It indicates a recent evolution, and that we probably descended from a small population (approx 12 000)

24

How is genetic diversity measured?

Via average number of genetic differences per base pair (nucleotide) in a DNA sequence

25

What does genetic variation tell us?

If evolution is occuring or not occurring

26

Which species lived longer, had a longer life, and a higher population density?

The Upper Paleolithic Humans

27

What is the percent difference in the DNA of modern humans and chimpanzees

There's only a 1.3% difference

28

Are most substitutions synonymous or non-synonymous?

Synonymous

29

What does the HAR1 protein do?

Regulates brain protein

30

What is the relevance of HARs ?

The abundance of HARs in humans might be one of the reasons why we are able to have such large complex brains