Flashcards in Test 2 - Questions Deck (40)
What are apes better at than monkeys?
- swinging through trees
- being more upright
Why are there so many different names/subcategories for humans?
Are apes a clade?
Highly debated - however if apes are a clade, we are therefore apes
Why is it possible that chimps have evolved more than we think they have?
- observer bias (we pay more attention to ourselves than chimps)
- hard to study ourselves
What adaptations evolved from complex foraging strategies?
- clever hands
- walking upright
- big brains
- male-female cooperation
- social behaviour
How did complex foraging promote cooperation in people?
- female/male: child care isn't suitd to hunting lifestylfe
- people: promoted people with different skills to work together
- hunters: hunting success is highly variable
What are some animals other than hominins that make tools?
When did early humans replace other hominins?
When did modern humans replace early humans?
Where did modern humans evolve?
Is behaviour a result of nature or nurture?
Both! Behaviour is a result of both genetics and environmental influences
What is the difference between a sign stimulus and a releaser?
A sign stimulus is a stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern, however a releaser is a stimulus specifically between two organisms, which then triggers the FAP
What are some traits of learned behaviour?
- it's durable
- it's usually adaptive
- it may be modified by experience
- it may be constrained by evolution
- individuals may improve behaviours over time as related to maturation
What is the use of play as a behaviour?
It can be used to develop skills
What is the difference between kinesis and taxis?
Kinesis is multidirectional, where taxis is uni-directional and it's stimulus is usually sound, light, heat, or a magnetic field
Why do females usually invest more in parental investment?
Because reproductive success is limited by ability to raise offspring
Why do males invest more in mating effort?
Because reproductive success is limited by access to fertilizable eggs
What is a sex role reversal?
When men care for the offspring, females compete for mates
What is the equation for inclusive fitness?
Inclusive Fitness = individual (direct) fitness + indirect fitness
What are the variables in Hamiltons Rule?
- r = coefficient of relatedness
- B = benefit to the recipient of the behaviour
- C = cost of the altruistic act to the donor's individual fitness
What are some morphological features of Modern Homo Sapiens?
- large, round skull
- high forehead
- protruding chin
- long limbs
- less robust skeleton
Where and when did homo sapiens evolve?
Africa, 200 000 years ago
What does the low genetic diversity of humans tell us?
It indicates a recent evolution, and that we probably descended from a small population (approx 12 000)
How is genetic diversity measured?
Via average number of genetic differences per base pair (nucleotide) in a DNA sequence
What does genetic variation tell us?
If evolution is occuring or not occurring
Which species lived longer, had a longer life, and a higher population density?
The Upper Paleolithic Humans
What is the percent difference in the DNA of modern humans and chimpanzees
There's only a 1.3% difference
Are most substitutions synonymous or non-synonymous?
What does the HAR1 protein do?
Regulates brain protein