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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (36):
1

Which Tetracyclines are excreted via urine?

Short acting ones:
Tetracycline,
Oxytetracycline,
Chlorteracycline.

2

Best choice for anaerobic bacteria?

Lincosamides are outstanding against them:
Lincomycine + Clindamycine.

3

Name 5 diseases that are treated with Doxycycline.

Hearthworm against Wolbachia spp,
Babesia,
Borrhelia--> Lyme disease,
Clamydophila-->respiratory infections,
Rickettsiae,
Mycoplasma.

4

Mention the most toxic aminoglycoside?

Neomycin.

5

Which can penetrate IC?

Tetracyclines( Doxycycline).

6

Good for treating oral cavity infections?

Lincosamides.

7

Has a high conc in bronchial fluid after hours of administration:

Gamithromycine (effective for 10-15 days).

8

Which macrolides can be used in Eq? For which diseases is it indicated?

For R.equi.
Drugs used:
Azithromycine, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, Gamithromycine.

9

Mechanism of action of aminoglycosides.

30S subunit.
Bactericidal ( conc dependent).
Except: Specinomycines (bacteriostatic).

10

Mention the side effects of aminoglycosides.

Nephrotoxic.
Ototoxic: damages VIII; Vestibulocochlear n.--> damage of audition and balance.
Neuromuscular blockL inhibits Ach release in neuromuscular junction.

11

What did the mouse do on the hot plate?

Licking and picking up his legs.

12

Macrolide having cardio-toxic effect?

Tilmicosine.

13

Aminoglycosides used for which bacteria?

Mycobacterium + Mycoplasma.

14

Describe the tail flick test.

-Tail is radiated by a focused IR lamp as pain stimulus.
-Time is measured till the animal removes it's tail.
-Control--> Mouse without drug.
- Mouse with morphine--> Morphine has it's max effect after 30mins (Disadvantage is the slow onset of action)

15

Tetracyclines: Bacterial spectrum + Resistance.

-Resistance:
> common amongst all bacteria.
> especially E.coli.
> Mechanism=> Impaired uptake into bacteria + active efflux.
> Ab ovo: P. aeruginosa--> always resistant to Tetracyclines.
> Acquired: Pathogenic--> E.coli, Salmonella, P. multocida, Manheima haemolitica, Staph aureus.

16

Side effects of Pleuromutulins?

Skin erythema--> Peri-anal region.
Vulvar oedema.
Dysbacteriosis--> not for Eq + rodents.
Toxic interaction with ionophores (m. necrosis)

17

Side effects of Lincosamides?

Severe dysbacteriosis--> Absolutely prohibited in herbivorous, rodents, rabbits, Eq.
Severe tissue irritation.
Vomiting.

18

Use of Clindamycin?

Oral cavity infection.
Respiratory infection.
Toxoplasmosis.
Osteomyelitis.
Jt infection.
Dermatitis.
Anal succulitis.
Abscesses.

19

Tetracyclines are yellowish substances. Explain.

Occurs die to high affinity to Ca.
Yellow discolouration of teeth in growing animals.

20

Which drugs can be used against GI infections due to E.coli, Salmonella?

Aminoglycosides ( Neomycin for Sus, oral administration).

21

Mention the side effects of Tetracyclines.

Oral infection (Fe).
GI disturbances (vomiting + diarrhoea).
Dysbacteriosis.
IV administration may cause hypocalcaemia, hypotension, shock + even collapse.
Tissue necrosis.
Yellow discoloration of teeth in growing animals.
Hepatoxicity + Nephrotoxicity + Photosensitivity.

22

Which organisms are susceptible to Tetracyclines?

Borrelia spp. ( Lyme disease).
Chlamydophila spp.
Rickettsia spp.
Mycoplasma spp.
Protozoa: anaplasma, Theileria, Epeythrozoon spp.

23

Aminoglycosides acting on P. aeruginosa

Amikacin, Tobramycin, Gentamycin.

24

Which drug is prohibited in food producing animals?

Chloramphenicol.

25

Ab acting on bacterial cell wall/ membrane.

Aminoglycosides.

26

What synergises with Spectinomycin?

Pronounced synergism with Lincomycin.
Spectinomycin (50S) + Lincomycin (30S).
Used against mycoplasma infection.

27

Best for: 1st choice.
Sus sysentery=
Gingivitis=
Borrelia--> lyme disease=
Wolbachia--> Heartworm=
Ab responsice diarrhoea=
Lawsonia IC=

Tylvalosin.
Clindamycin.
Docyccline.
Tetracyclines.
Tylosin.
Tiamulin.

28

Mention drugs used for opthalmic treatment.

Neomycin, Tobramycin, Bacitracin, Polymyxins.

29

Mode of action of macrolides.

Bacteriostatic.

30

Name 2 macrolides used in small animals and humans.

Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin.

31

What is now obsolute for Sus dysentery? What replaces it?

Tylosin is obsolute.
Tylvalosin.

32

Mention tests where pain is caused by heat

Hot plate method.
Tail immersion test.
Tail flick test.

33

Name the drugs acting on 30S + 50S subunit.

30S: Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines.
50S: Macrolides, Lincosamides, Phenicols, Pleuromutulins.

34

Which drugs are used against Lawsonia intracellularis?

Tylosin, Tylvalosin, Lincomycin, Tiamulin, Valnemulin.

35

Which one of the tetracyclines is better orally absorbed?

Long acting Tetracyclines.
Doxycycline + Minocycline.

36

Antibacterial spectrum of tetracyclines.

-All tetracyclines are similar.
-Very broad: Gr+ve + gr-ve, aerobic anaerobic (wide range).
-Can penetrate + act IC.
-Very common resistance, especially among Enterobacteriaceae.
Sensitivity testing important.
Active against some special bacteria.