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Flashcards in Test 3 Info Deck (101):
1

Smooth muscle contraction is under ______ control of the nervous system

involuntary

2

Single unit muscle cells contract _____.

together
in unison

3

Thin filaments in smooth muscle cells contain the proteins ______ (2)

Actin
Tropomyosin

4

Caveolae

Invaginations of the plasma membrane
Increase the surface area of the sarcolemma of smooth muscle

5

Dense plaque

Points where intermediate filaments are anchored to the inner surface of the sarcolemma of smooth muscle

6

Varicosity

A vesicle (bead) that stores norepinepherine at the terminal branches of ganglionic sympathetic neurons

7

The z discs that anchor the sarcomere on either end in skeletal muscle are ____ from smooth muscle cells

absent

8

Do smooth muscle cells have transverse tubules?

No

9

Smooth muscle cells have a single, centrally located

nuleus

10

Examples of locations for smooth muscle:

1) In the wall of the small intestine
2) Around blood vessels
3) In the wall of the uterus

11

In smooth muscle, thin filaments are attached to ____ by elements of the cytoskeleton

dense bodies

12

Smooth muscle contraction is ___, resistant to ___ and usually sustained for ______ periods of time.

slow
fatigue
extended

13

Locations for multiunit smooth muscle:

1) Arrector pili muscles
2) Iris of the eye

14

The sarcolemma of smooth muscle cells has small invaginations called ____

caveolae

15

During contration of smooth muscle, ____ binds to calcium and activates myosin light chain kinase

calmodulin

16

The mechanism of contraction in smooth muscle involves a calcium-binding protein called _____

calmodulin

17

Autonomic motor neurons that control smooth muscle contraction have bulbous swellings called ____ that contain synaptic vesicles.

varicosities

18

Ohm's Law

Voltage = Current * Resistance
Current = Voltage/Resistance
Resistance = Current/Voltage

19

_____ occurs when the inside of the cell becomes more positive than the resting membrane potential

Depolarization

20

What 2 things must happen in order for a chemical signal to change the membrane potential of a neuron?

1) Change in # of open ion channels
2) Change in ion flow across the membrane

21

Compare properties of neuron to electrical currents:
1) Charged particles
2) Voltage
3) Resistance
4) Current

1) Ions
2) Membrane potential
3) Plasma membrane
4) Flow of ions through ion channels

22

The opposition to the movement of electrical charge is known as ____

resistance

23

Voltage is a measure of relative _____ _____.

Potential energy

24

2 basic causes of the development of the resting membrane potential

1) Na+ leak channels
2) K+ leak channels

25

The resting membrane potential is measured in _____

millivolts (mV)

26

In the initial segment, an action potential is generated if the membrane potential reaches the ___ ___

threshold value

27

Current

Movement of charged particles

28

What channels open and in what order do they open to develop an action potential?

1) Voltage gated Na+
2) Voltage gated K+

29

What type of channels are essential for the generation of an action potential?

Voltage gated channels

30

Graded potential

Temporary change in membrane potential which lasts only as long as the stimulus that causes it and can vary in size

31

Opening of what 2 types of channels would likely lead to hyperpolarization of a neuron?

1) voltage gated potassium channel
2) chemically gated chloride channel

32

What 2 things would follow after threshold voltage is reached due to sodium ions entering through a voltage gated Na+ channel?

1) Membrane potential would reverse (become positive)
2) More voltage gated sodium channels would open

33

What is the typical resting membrane potential of a neuron?

-70 mV

34

What is a central function of neuron physiology?

Creating electrical current
Transmitting electrical current

35

3 Cranial meninges (from deepest to superficial)

1) Pia mater
2) Arachnoid mater
3) Dura mater

36

Cerebral aqueduct

connects the third and fourth ventricles through the midbrain

37

Functions of the Cerebrospinal Fluid

1) Environmental stability
2) Buoyancy
3) Protection

38

Arachnoid villi

.

39

Cavities within the brain are called

ventricles

40

Which of the meninges is the strongest?

Dura mater

41

The fourth ventricle merges with the ___ ___ in the spinal cord

central canal

42

There are ____ ventricles in the brain

4

43

There are ___ lateral ventricles

2
First and second ventricles are lateral

44

Meninges

Protective membranes that SURROUND, STABILIZE and PARTITION parts of the brain

45

The lateral ventricles communicate with the ____ ventricle through an opening called the ____ foramen

third
interventricular

46

What 3 substances can pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB)

1) some anesthetics
2) nicotine
3) alcohol

47

____ bathes the exposed surfaces of the CNS

Ceribrospinal fluid (CSF)

48

Blood-brain barrier

Keeps the neurons in the brain from being exposed to
1) variations in levels of ions and hormones
2) drugs
3) waste products in the bloos

49

CSF circulates in

1) the ventricles
2) subarachnoid space

50

CSF is produced by secretion of a fluid from

Ependymal cells

51

Gray matter is

Nonmyelinated
Cell bodies

52

White matter is

Myelinated
Axons

53

How many cranial nerves?

12 PAIRS

54

The 4 Major Regions of the Brain

1) Cerebrum
2) Diencephon
3) Brainstem
4) Cerebellum

55

Cerebrum

Divided into LEFT and RIGHT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

56

5 Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

1) Frontal lobe
2) Temporal lobe
3) Occipital lobe
4) Parietal lobe
5) Insula lobe

57

Gyrus

Hump of a brain fold
On either side of suci

58

Sulcus

SHALLOW depressions of brain folds
Between gyri

59

Fissure

DEEP groove in brain

60

3 Important Sulci

1) Lateral sulcus
2) Central sulcus
3) Parieto-occipital sulcus

61

Example of a fissure and where it is located

Longitudinal fissure
Between R/L hemispheres

62

Location of Lateral Sulcus

Between TEMPORAL lobe (below) and FRONTAL/PARIETAL lobes (above)
Relatively horizontal

63

Location of Central Sulcus

Between FRONTAL lobe and PARIETAL lobe
Relatively verticle

64

Location of Perieto-occipital Sulcus

Between PARIETAL and OCCIPITAL lobes

65

Insula lobe

INSIDE brain

66

Ganglion

Cluster of neuron cell bodies in the PNS

67

Center

Group of CNS neuron cell bodies with a common function

68

Nerve

Bundle of AXONS extending through the PNS

69

Nerve Plexus

Network of nerves

70

Tract

CNS AXON bundle in which the axons have similar function and share a common origin and destination

71

Funiculus

Group of TRACTS in a specific area of the spinal cord

72

Pathway

Centers and tracts that connect the CNS with body organs and sytems

73

Functions of the cerebrum

Seat of intelligence
1) Information processing
2) Language
3) Personality
4) Conscience

74

Function of Cerebellum

1) Coordinate motor activities

75

Parts of the diencephalon

1) Thalamus
2) Hypothalamus
3) Epithalamus

76

Function of Thalamus

Processing and relay center

77

Functions of the Hypotalamus

Homeostasis
1) Body temperature
2) Food and water intake
3) Sleep and circadian rhythms
4) Emotional responses
5) Memory

78

Parts of Epithalamus

1) Pineal gland
2) Habenula

79

Function of Pineal gland

Endocrine organ (hormones)

80

Function of Habanula

Relay center

81

3 Parts of the Brainstem

1) Midbrain
2) Pons
3) Medulla Oblongata

82

Function of the Midbrain

(part of brainstem)
1) Visual reflexes
2) Auditory reflexes

83

Function of the Pons

(part of brainstem)
1) Contains ascending and descending fiber tracts
2) Where cerebellar hemispheres are attached

84

Function of the Medulla Oblongata

(part of brainstem)
1) ALL nerve fibers going between brain and spinal cord pass through
2) Nuclei for Respiration
3) Nuclei for Blood pressure
4) Nuclei for Heartbeat

85

3 Sensory Cranial Nerves

1) Olfactory (I)
2) Optic (II)
3) Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

86

5 Motor Cranial Nerves

1) Oculomotor (III)
2) Trochlear (IV)
3) Abducens (VI)
4) Accessory (XI)
5) Hypoglossal (XII)

87

4 Mixed Cranial Nerves

1) Trigeminal (V)
2) Facial (VII)
3) Glossopharyngeal (IX)
4) Vagus (X)

88

12 Cranial Nerves in order

1) Olfactory (on)
2) Optic (our)
3) Oculomotor (oak)
4) Trochlear (tree)
5) Trigeminal (Thomas)
6) Abducens (accidentally)
7) Facial (forgot)
8) Vestibulocochlear (valuable)
9) Glossopharyngeal (gold)
10) Vagus (very)
11) Aaccessory (absentminded of)
12) Hypoglossal (him)

89

12 Cranial Nerve mnemonic

On
Our
Oak
Tree
Thomas
Accidentally
Forgot
Valuable
Gold
Very
Absentminded of
Him

90

Olfactory Nerve

# I - On
Type SENSORY
Function SMELL

91

Optic Nerve

# II - Our
Type SENSORY
Function VISION

92

Oculomotor Nerve

# III - Oak
Type MOTOR
Functions
1) Eyeball movement
2) Raise upper eyelid
3) Pupil constriction
4) Visual focusing

93

Trochlear Nerve

# IV - Tree
Type MOTOR
Function EYEBALL MOVEMENT (lateral and inferior)

94

Trigeminal Nerve

# V - Thomas
Type MIXED
Functions
1) Sensory nerve for face
2) CHEWING

95

Abducens Nerve

# VI - Accidentally
Type MOTOR
Function EYEBALL MOVEMENT (lateral)

96

Facial Nerve

#VII - Forgot
Type MIXED
Functions
1) Taste
2) Facial expression
3) Control lacrimal (tears) glands
4) Control salivary (saliva) glands

97

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

# VIII - Valuable
Type SENSORY
Functions
1) Hearing
2) Equilibrium

98

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

# IX - Gold
Type MIXED
Functions
1) Taste
2) Swallowing
3) Control salivary glands
4) Regulate respiration/blood pressure due to sensory association w/ receptor in neck

99

Vagus Nerve

#X - Very
Type MIXED
Functions
1) Sensory signals from motor signals to pharynx, diaphragm, cardiac & smooth muscles

100

Accessory Nerve

#XI - Absentminded of
Type MOTOR
Functions
1) Swallowing
2) Sternocleidomastoid & Trapezius muscles

101

Hypoglossal Nerve

#XII - Him
Type MOTOR
Function TOUNGE MOVEMENTS