Flashcards in Chapter 7: Bones Deck (43):
Epiphysis of a long bone closest to the body trunk:
Vertebral bones are ____ bones
Statements that characterize central canals of osteons
1) Contain blood vessels
2) Contain nerves
3) Cylindrical channel
Structure inside spongy bone
Outside double layer of connective tissue on outside of bone
Where ligaments and tendons attach to bone
Where bone grows in diameter
Goes through compact bone horizontally
How blood and nerve supplies get to central canal and medullary cavity
Goes through bone vertically
AKA Haversian canal
Blood vessels and nerve fibers travel through
Rings of bone matrix (collagen fibers run in different directions
Around central canal
Prevents too much STRECH and TWIST of bone
Rings of matrix
Around WHOLE bone or around medullary cavity
_____ are large phagocytic cells found in bone.
Long bones include:
Flat bones have surfaces composed of ___ bone with internally placed ____ bone.
The elongated cylindrical shaft of a long bone:
Examples of short bones
1) some foot bones
2) wrist bones
A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering an epiphysis of a long bone is called
Bones of the skeleton function as a system of ____ that are pulled when skeletal muscles contract.
The cylindrical space within the diaphysis of of a long bone is called the _____.
Statements that characterize osteocytes:
1) Reside in lacunae
2) Detect mechanical stress in bone
3) Maintain bone matrix
Bones provide structural support for the body by serving as a ____ for the entire body.
A thin line of compact bone in the epiphysis of a mature bone is called the ____.
Functions of bone include:
2) Protection of internal organs
3) Mineral storage (Calcium & Phosphate)
5) Movement (levers for muscles)
6) Storage of energy (in the form of lipids-yellow bone marrow)
4 types of bone cells
Connective tissue made of
2) fibers (collagen)
3) ground substance (Ca salts)
Layers of bone matrix
Thin INNER connective tissue
Lines inner cavities
Thin layer of HYALINE cartilage where there is a joint
Connective tissue in medullary cavity or spongy bone
Site of hemopoiesis
Extracellular matrix of bone is made of.....
6 Functions of Bones
5) storage of minerals
6) storage of energy
Stem cells of bone
Give rise to osteoblasts
From osteoprogenitor cells
Part of ossification and osteogenesis
Secrete extracellular matrix
Mature bone cells
Bone resorption via lysosomal enzymes and Hplus
In inner periosteum and endostium (think on spongy bone)
Release enzymes and acids that break down bone
In osteoclasts within resorption lacuna
Organic components of bone matrix and benefit it gives bone
Give STRENGTH and FLEXIBILITY
Inorganic components of bone matrix and benefits of them to bone
Called mineral salts
Give HARDNESS and RESIST COMPRESSION
1) calcium phosphate
2) calcium hydroxide
3) 1+2= hydroxyapatite
4) calcium carbonate
Spongy bone is always....
Protected/surrounded by compact bone
On a slide, red bone marrow will have a lot of ....
You will see trabeculae
Bone is very ......
Constantly ....... ...... And .......
Broken down and rebuilt
3 "types" of osteogenesis
1) formation of the bony skeleton in embryos
2) bone growth up to early adulthood
3) bone thickness, remodeling and repair
Directly from mesenchyme to bone