Chapter 7: Bones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Bones Deck (43):
1

Epiphysis of a long bone closest to the body trunk:

Proximal epiphysis

2

Vertebral bones are ____ bones

Irregular

3

Statements that characterize central canals of osteons

1) Contain blood vessels
2) Contain nerves
3) Cylindrical channel

4

Trabeculae

Structure inside spongy bone

5

Periosteum

Outside double layer of connective tissue on outside of bone
Where ligaments and tendons attach to bone
Where bone grows in diameter

6

Perforating Canal

Goes through compact bone horizontally
How blood and nerve supplies get to central canal and medullary cavity
AKA Volkman's

7

Central Canal

Goes through bone vertically
AKA Haversian canal
Blood vessels and nerve fibers travel through

8

Concentric lamellae

Rings of bone matrix (collagen fibers run in different directions
Around central canal
Form osteons
Prevents too much STRECH and TWIST of bone

9

Circumferential lamellae

Rings of matrix
Around WHOLE bone or around medullary cavity

10

_____ are large phagocytic cells found in bone.

Osteoclasts

11

Long bones include:

1) Palm
2) Fingers
3) Toes
4) Thigh

12

Flat bones have surfaces composed of ___ bone with internally placed ____ bone.

compact
spongy

13

The elongated cylindrical shaft of a long bone:

Diaphysis

14

Examples of short bones

1) some foot bones
2) wrist bones

15

A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering an epiphysis of a long bone is called

Articular cartlage

16

Bones of the skeleton function as a system of ____ that are pulled when skeletal muscles contract.

levers

17

The cylindrical space within the diaphysis of of a long bone is called the _____.

Medullary cavity

18

Statements that characterize osteocytes:

1) Reside in lacunae
2) Detect mechanical stress in bone
3) Maintain bone matrix

19

Bones provide structural support for the body by serving as a ____ for the entire body.

framework

20

A thin line of compact bone in the epiphysis of a mature bone is called the ____.

epiphyseal line

21

Functions of bone include:

1) Hemopoiesis
2) Protection of internal organs
3) Mineral storage (Calcium & Phosphate)
4) Support
5) Movement (levers for muscles)
6) Storage of energy (in the form of lipids-yellow bone marrow)

22

4 types of bone cells

Osteoprogenitor cells
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts

23

Bone composition

Connective tissue made of
1) cells
2) fibers (collagen)
3) ground substance (Ca salts)

24

Interstitial lamellae

Layers of bone matrix
Between osteons

25

Endosteum

Thin INNER connective tissue
Lines inner cavities

26

Articular cartilage

Thin layer of HYALINE cartilage where there is a joint

27

Red marrow

Connective tissue in medullary cavity or spongy bone
Site of hemopoiesis

28

Extracellular matrix of bone is made of.....

Organic material
Inorganic material

29

6 Functions of Bones

1) support
2) protection
3) movement
4) hemopoiesis
5) storage of minerals
6) storage of energy

30

Osteoprogenitor cells

Stem cells of bone
Give rise to osteoblasts

31

Osteoblasts

From osteoprogenitor cells
Part of ossification and osteogenesis
Secrete extracellular matrix

32

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells
In matrix
In lacuna
Maintain

33

Osteoclasts

Bone resorption via lysosomal enzymes and Hplus
In inner periosteum and endostium (think on spongy bone)

34

Lysosomes

Release enzymes and acids that break down bone
In osteoclasts within resorption lacuna

35

Organic components of bone matrix and benefit it gives bone

Called osteoid
Give STRENGTH and FLEXIBILITY
1) collagen
2) protoglycans
3) glycoproteins

36

Inorganic components of bone matrix and benefits of them to bone

Called mineral salts
Give HARDNESS and RESIST COMPRESSION
1) calcium phosphate
2) calcium hydroxide
3) 1+2= hydroxyapatite
4) calcium carbonate

37

Spongy bone is always....

Protected/surrounded by compact bone

38

On a slide, red bone marrow will have a lot of ....

Nuclei
You will see trabeculae

39

Bone is very ......
Constantly ....... ...... And .......

Dynamic
Broken down and rebuilt

40

Osteogenesis

Bone formation

41

3 "types" of osteogenesis

1) formation of the bony skeleton in embryos
2) bone growth up to early adulthood
3) bone thickness, remodeling and repair

42

Intramembranous ossification

Directly from mesenchyme to bone

43

Examples of bones that develop via intramembranous ossification

Skull
Mandible
Maxilla
Zygomatic
Clavicle