Flashcards in Test #3 Part 2 Deck (26):
define punctuated equilibrium model.
-temporary phases of groups go through that involves transitions between activity and inertia
-at halfway point, they experience an increase in productivity
what are the 6 sequences of actions?
1. setting group direction
2. first phase of inertia
3. halfway point transition
4. major changes
5. second phase of inertia
6. accelerated productivity
what are the 6 group properties?
define roles in a group. (4)
-behavior patterns, positions taken within group
-perception: individual's view of how he/she is supposed to act in a given situation
-expectancy: how others believe a person should act
define psychic contract.
unwritten agreement that set mutual expectations of management and employees
define norms in a group. (5)
-accepted standards of behavior by a group
-allocation of resources
what did the Hawthorne Studies discover about group influences and group standards?
-group influence: norms highly effective in influencing individual worker output
-group standards: worker behavior and sentiments are closely related
gaining acceptance by adjusting ones behavior to align with group norms
define reference groups.
important groups in which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
define Asch studies. (2)
-demonstrates power of conformance
-culture-based and deciding in performance
define deviant workplace behavior.
voluntary behavior violating sig org norms and in doing so, threatening well-being of org
what are the 4 types of deviant workplace behavior?
define status in a group.
socially defined position or rank given to group(s) members by others; sig motivator
What are the 3 parts of Status Characterization Theory?
status derived by:
1. power a person has over others
2. ability to contribute to group goals
3. personal characteristics
what are the status effects on norms and conformity?
-high status members are less restrained by norms and pressure to conform
-some level of deviance allowed to higher status members so long as it doesnt afffect group goal achievement
what are the status effects on group interaction?
-high status members more assertive
-large status difference limits diversity of ideas and creativity
what are the status effects on equity?
if status is perceived to be inequitable, results in various forms of corrective behavior
define size in a group. (3)
-group size affects behavior
-sm: 7 or less
what 3 attributes make best use of a small group?
2. individual performance
3. overall performance
what 3 attributes make best use of a large group?
1. problem solving
2. diverse input
3. fact-finding goals
define social loafing.
tendency for individual to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
what were the findings of the Ringelmann's Rope Pull?
greater group size = diminishing productivity
what 4 ways can a menager prevent social loafing?
1. set group goals
2. increase intergroup competition
3. use evaluation
4. dist group rewards, based on individual efforts
define cohesiveness in a group.
degree to which group members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in group
what 7 ways can a manager increase group cohesiveness
1. make groups smaller
2. encourage agreement with group goals
3. increase time members spend together
4. increase group status and make admissions difficult
5. stimulate competition with other groups
6. give rewards to groups, not individuals
7. physically isolate groups