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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (70)
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Correspondence principle

The tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and perpetuate social class division from ones generation to the next. (345)

1

Creationism

A literal interpretation of the Bible regarding the creation of humanity and the universe, used to argue that evolution should not be represented as established scientific fact. (351)

2

Credentialism

An increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field. (344)

3

Denomination

A large, organized religion that is not officially linked to the state or government. (335)

4

Ecclesia

A religious organization that claims to include most or all members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion. (335)

5

Education

A formal process of learning in which some people consciously teach while others adopt the social role of learner. (325)

6

Established sect

A religious group that is the outgrowth of a sect, yet remains isolated from society. (336)

7

Fundamentalism

An emphasis on doctrinal conformity and the literal interpretation of secret texts. (333)

8

Hidden curriculum

Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are thought subtly in schools. (344)

9

Intelligent design (ID)

The idea that life is so complex, it could only have been created by intelligent design. (351)

10

Liberation theology

Use of a church, primarily Roman Catholic, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society. (331)

11

New religious movement (NRM) or cult

A small, secretive religious group that represents either a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith. (336)

12

Profane

The ordinary or commonplace elements of life, as distinguished from the sacred. (325)

13

Protestant ethic

Max Weber's term for the disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers. (331)

14

Quasi-religion

A scholarly category that includes organizations that may see themselves as religious but may be seen by others as "sort of religious." (337)

15

Religion

A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things. (325)

16

Religious belief

A statement to which members of a particular religion adhere. (332)

17

Religious experience

The feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion.(333)

18

Religious ritual

A practice required or expected of members of a faith. (333)

19

Sacred

Elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear. 325)

20

Sect

A relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original vision of the faith. (336)

21

Secularization

The process through which religion's influence on other social institutions diminishes. (324)

22

Teacher-expectancy effect

The impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the students actual achievements. (346)

23

Tracking

The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria. (345)

24

Adoption

In a legal sense, a process that allows the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents. (308)

25

Bilateral descent

A kinship system in which both sides of a person's family are regarded as equally important. (300)

26

Cohabitation

The practice of living together as a male-female couple without marrying. (313)

27

Domestic partnership

Two unrelated adults who share a mutually carrying relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities. (317)

28

Egalitarian family

An authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals. (301)

29

Endogamy

The restriction of mate selection to people within the same group. (304)