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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (15):


Operant- the process by which, when a previously reinforced behavior is no longer followed by the reinforcing consequences, the frequency of the behavior decreases in the future .
Respondent- the process by which, when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the CS gradually ceases to elicit the conditioned response (CR)


Extinction burst

The phenomenon in which, when a behavior is no longer reinforced, the behavior temporarily increases in frequency, duration, or intensity before it decreases. Novel behaviors or emotional responses may also occur in an extinction burst


Resistance to extinction

The tendency for a person to continue to respond after extinction is in effect for the behavior. Intermittent reinforcement schedules make the behavior more resistant to extinction than do continuous reinforcement schedules


Spontaneous recovery

Operant- the process in which, when an operant behavior has been extinguished, the behavior may occur again in the future in circumstances in which it was previously reinforced.
Respondent- the process in which, when a conditioned response (CR) has been extinguished, the CR may occur at a later time when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented again.


Escape extinction

Extinction for behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement. In negative reinforcement. In negative reinforcement, a behavior results in escape from an aversive stimulus. Escape extinction involves no longer allowing escape following the problem behavior.


Treatment fidelity

Implementing a procedure exactly as planned. Also called treatment integrity or implementation fidelity.


Contingent observation

A type of non exclusionary time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior, the person is removed from a reinforcing activity for a brief time and required to sit and observe other people as they continue to engage in the activity.


Exclusionary time-out

La time-out procedure in which the person is briefly removed fro the reinforcing environment——typically to another room-contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior


Non exclusionary time-out

A type of time-out procedure in which, contingent on the problem behavior, the person is removed from all sources of reinforcement but is not removed from the room where te problem behavior occurred.


Response cost

La negative punishment procedure in which contingent on a behavior, a specified amount of a reinforcer is removed



The environment from which the child is removed during the use of time-out. The time in environment should be positively reinforcing for time-out to be effective



(positive reinforcement)
A type of negative punishment in which, contingent on the occurrences of the problem behavior, the person loses access to positive reinforcers for a brief period. Typically, the person is removed from the reinforcing environment in a time-out procedure.


Backup reinforcement

Reinforcers used in a token economy. A client receives tokens for desirable behaviors and exchanges a specified number of tokens for any of a variety of backup reinforcers



A conditioned reinforcer used in a token economy. The token is something that can be given to another person and accumulated by that person. The token is a conditioned reinforcer because it is given to the person after the desirable behavior and is exchanged for established reinforcers called backup reinforcers


Token economy

A reinforcement system in which conditioned reinforcers called tokens are delivered to people for desirable behaviors: the tokens are later exchanged for backup reinforcers.