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Flashcards in Test on Thursday June 13, 2016 Deck (34):
1

Describe ways in which soil can be damaged. 2

Soil can be damaged when it loses its fertility.
=This can happen through loss of nutrients. It can also happen by the loss of moisture.

Loss of Topsoil: Wherever soil is exposed, wind and water can erode it.

2

Define herbicides and pesticides

Herbicide—a substance that is toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation.

Pesticide—a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.

3

Identify and describe the advantages of farming organic produce 3

Closely Regulated: In order for a food to be labeled as organic, the entire process of which is was created is thoroughly investigated. The organic food industry is internationally regulated, which means that organic means the same standards where followed, no matter where in the world it was made. This helps the consumers to know that they are truly getting what they think that they are.

Better Taste and More Nutrition: Fruits and vegetables that are organically raised have a much better taste than other mechanically farmed ones. This is due to the fact that they are given a much longer time to develop and are not pumped with artificial things. The sugar structures in these crops have more time to mature and develop into a tasty and nutritious product.

The Environment Doesn’t Suffer: Another thing that benefits from the use of organic farming is the environment! In industrial farms, the chemicals that are used are seep into the ground and contaminate the soil and local water sources. Humans, animals, and plant life are all affected negatively by this. With organic farming, there are no chemicals used, so no pollution occurs either.

4

Define pesticides

Pesticide—a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.

5

Explain the pros of using Herbicides 3

When pesticides are used, there can be less crop loss to bugs. This yields more food, more profit for the farmer, and less waste of land, time, farm equipment use and water for irrigation.

Readily Accessible:
Pesticides can be purchased easily in various stores. Some use to kill devastating plants, these are also accessible either commercially and homemade recipe.

Production of Pesticide:
The production of pesticide is continue to increased and approximately 40 percent of it is shipped to other nations and thus gives lots of jobs to many people.

6

List and describe the benefits of buying and eating locally grown foods. 5

Locally grown food is full of flavor. When grown locally, the crops are picked at their peak of ripeness versus being harvested early in order to be shipped and distributed to your local retail store. Many times produce at local markets has been picked within 24 hours of your purchase.

Local food supports the local economy. The money that is spent with local farmers and growers all stays close to home and is reinvested with businesses and services in your community.

Local food benefits the environment. By purchasing locally grown foods you help maintain farmland and green and/or open space in your community.

Local growers can tell you how the food was grown. You can ask what practices they use to raise and harvest the crops. When you know where your food comes from and who grew it, you know a lot more about that food.

Local food has more nutrients. Local food has a shorter time between harvest and your table, and it is less likely that the nutrient value has decreased. Food imported from far-away states and countries is often older, has traveled and sits in distribution centers before it gets to your store.

7

Explain what GMO’s are.

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques

8

What are cons to pesticide 5

Pesticides may damage the environment

Pesticides may affect non-targeted organisms that may be useful or important

Species may undergo a decline of population, or even go extinct

Humans may be affected and may get diseases

The balance in ecosystems will be broken

9

Identify and describe the disadvantages of farming organic produce 3

It’s a Whole Lot More Work: It takes a whole lot of hard work to successfully grow crops organically. There is a high amount of farmer interaction time with their crops. Whether it be to ensure that the plants remain pest free in an organic way, or to act as weed prevention, the time required is significantly higher than plants and crops produced industrially.

The Consumer Pays the Price: Organic foods in the supermarket are infamously higher than others. This is one of the biggest reasons that people do not fully support the use of organic farming, and not nearly enough people are enjoying the great benefits that it could bring. For example, a pound of non organic red peppers cost right around $2.76, while a pound of organic red peppers run a whopping $5.89! That’s double the price!

Low yield: Organic farming also requires far more land to grow the same amount of produce as conventional farming does, because chemicals are not used to produce high yield crops. Using more land uses up more energy, for example through increased ploughing, and this can negate the benefits or organic farming because it produces more emissions.

10

Identify products other than food that can be derived from crops/animals. 5

Plastic Bags—Animal fat

Car and bike tires

Toothpaste—Glycerin is found in animal and vegetable fats

Hand soap—Corn

Windex—Corn

11

Define herbicides

Herbicide—a substance that is toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation.

12

What are pros to pesticide 4

Crops are saved from harmful pests

Populations of harmful insects that cause or spread diseases are eliminated

Harmful or inconvenient pests are eliminated

Disease carrying pests will also be eliminated

13

Discuss how individuals and society as a whole can make socially and environmentally responsible food choices. 4

Replace Disposables: Wherever possible, replace disposable products with reusable ones (i.e., razor, food storage, batteries, ink cartridges (buy refill ink), coffee filters, furnace or air conditioner filters, etc.).

Buy Only What You Need: Buy only as much as you know you'll use for items such as food, cleaning supplies, and paint.

Buy Durables: Buy products that will last and take care of them.
Avoid Single Use Products: Instead, choose (or bring) reusable products or consider doing without. Avoiding plastic single use items is especially important because of their toxic load and, if landfilled, exceptionally long life. These can include food and beverage containers, cups, plates, straws, writing pens, razors, diapers, towels, shopping bags, etc.

Refuse Products that Create Waste: If available, instead of buying processed food, bring your own bags and containers and buy from the bulk and produce sections of the grocery store. Minimize or eliminate other types of purchases that generate waste. The Johnson's are a zero-waste family who offer tips and inspiration for creating a zero-waste household while creating a far more satisfying and affordable lifestyle.

14

Explain the cons of using Herbicides 3

Genetic resistance: every year the number of resistant species evolving increases. Today, nearly 275 weeds and more than 500 insects are resistant to at least one pesticide. That's more than five times the amount in 1950. And farmers lose more crops to pests today than they did in the 1940s.

Most chemical pesticides are nonspecific: effect a large number of species, pest and non-pest

Water that contains pesticides runs off of agricultural areas and contaminates groundwater and the ocean affecting the health of humans and the environment

15

Using the “Apple Analogy”, explain how much of the earth’s surface is actually suitable for growing food. 5

If the apple would represent our Earth. The earth’s surface actually suitable for growing food is pretty small

First, the apple will be cut into 4 pieces, the 3 slices will represent the water.

From that ¼ piece of apple, we would cut it in half that will represent the half of the Earth’s surface that is inhospitable to people to crops: the polar regions, deserts, swamps, high or rocky mountains.

We will then put the half piece into to four, three of which represent land on which people can live, but cannot grow food. Some of it was never was arable because it’s too rocky, wet, cold, steep, or has soil too poor to produce food. Some of it used to be arable but isn’t any longer because it’s been developed—turned into cities, suburbs, highways, etc., so it can no longer
be farmed

Only 1/32 of the total apple/earth is arable land. And the peel of it represents the topsoil, the dark, nutrient-rich soil that holds moisture and feeds us by feeding our crops

16

Identify the different types of agriculture in North America and where they are most prevalent 4

Cattle/grain in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba

Wheat--In Saskatchewan

Cattle--In BC

Dairy--In Ontario and Quebec

17

List and describe the main issues facing the fisheries in Canada and explain how they can be resolved. 2

Overfishing— Add Safe catch limits. It is a constantly reassessed, scientifically determined, limit on the total number of fish caught and landed by a fishery. Politics and short time economical incentives should have no role in this.

Less access for indigenous people—Put in place treaties that recognize their rights to fish as they have been doing so for centuries.

18

What is the most important agricultural resource?

Soil

19

Explain why farming is a “risky business” when it come to making or losing money. 3

They can’t control the price of their commodities, fuel, weather

Buying land and farm equipment cost a lot of money.

Buying pesticides/herbicides and seed are expensive

20

What provinces produces the most dairy? 2

Quebec and Ontario

21

What are Canadian farmers doing/using to achieve Sustainable Agriculture? 3

Using New tech

Organic farming

Different soil conservation techniques

22

What are the three common contaminations in food?

Listeria

E. Coli

Salmonella

23

What is the proven as a one effective soil conservation method?

No till farming

24

Describe how food production has changed over the last 100 years. 4

There is more technology

Less farmers

Larger farms per farmer

More use of GMO plants

25

What the two main fertilizer ingredients?

Phosphates and Nitrates

26

List the main food products produced in Canada. 3

grains and oilseeds
= flax seed, canola,

wheat, barley, grain corn, field peas, flaxseed, and dry beans

red meats

dairy

27

Describe 5 ways that soil can become poor or damaged


Chemical Damage

Heavy metal (toxins from the environment)

Erosion (from Over tilling. Loss to wind/water)

Leeching ( loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil,)

Too much use of heavy euipment

28

Identify the regions in North America most suitable to agriculture and explain why. 2

Prairies--Good for farming because of flat land

Rockies--Good for cattle because they don't need falt land

29

List and describe the main challenges facing farmers in Canada today. 3


Not enough Canadians are becoming farmers: They can’t retire without anyone buying their expensive land

Soil erosion

Drought

30

Identify and explain the pros in regards to Genetically Modified foods and explain whether or not you feel that the pros outweighs the cons or vise versa.

Crops are more productive and have a larger yield.

More capable of thriving in regions with poor soil or adverse climates.

More environment friendly as they require less herbicides and pesticides.

Foods are more resistant and stay ripe for longer so they can be shipped long distances or kept on shop shelves for longer periods.

Genetically modified foods are safe. Changing a few genes here and there does not make a crop toxic or dangerous.
=======================================
The claim of ending world hunger with GMOs is false. World hunger is not caused by a shortage of food production, but by sheer mismanagement, and lack of access to food brought about by various social, financial and political causes.

31

Discuss the issues facing the food industry in North America as illustrated in the documentary 2

===A Cornucopia of Choices===
The tomatoes you buy in the grocery store are picked when green and then ripened with ehtylene gas

The food industry doesn’t want you to know the truth about what you are eating because if you did you might not eat it – it is a world deliberately hidden from us

Most people have no idea where their food comes from (do you?)

The fact that people need to write a book (and a blog!) telling people where their food comes from shows how far removed we are

The average grocery store has 47,000 products which makes it look like there is a large variety of choice – but it is an illusion – there are only a few major companies and a few major crops involved

====The Dollar Menu====
A double-cheeseburger from McDonald’s is 99 cents and you can’t even get a head of broccoli for that price

Those snack calories are cheaper because the commodity crops like corn, wheat, and soybeans are heavily subsidized

This is why the biggest predictor of obesity is income level

Type 2 diabetes used to only affect adults and now it is affecting children in epidemic proportions
Modern agriculture is all about doing things faster, fatter, bigger, cheaper…no one is thinking about the health of our system

32

Identify and explain the cons in regards to Genetically Modified foods and explain whether or not you feel that the pros outweighs the cons or vise versa. 5

Genetically modified crops pose a risk to food diversity as the plants are much more dominant.

Herbicide-resistant and pesticide-resistant crops could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests that would need newer, stronger chemicals to destroy them.

GMOs are not the answer to world hunger and health. Instead we should focus on improving organic agricultural practices which are kinder to the earth and healthier for humans.

The use of genetically modified food should not be encouraged without research into the risks.
=====================================
The claim of ending world hunger with GMOs is false. World hunger is not caused by a shortage of food production, but by sheer mismanagement, and lack of access to food brought about by various social, financial and political causes.

33

Explain the Dollar Menu on Food Inc.

The Dollar Menu
A double-cheeseburger from McDonald’s is 99 cents and you can’t even get a head of broccoli for that price

Those snack calories are cheaper because the commodity crops like corn, wheat, and soybeans are heavily subsidized

This is why the biggest predictor of obesity is income level

Type 2 diabetes used to only affect adults and now it is affecting children in epidemic proportions
Modern agriculture is all about doing things faster, fatter, bigger, cheaper…no one is thinking about the health of our system

34

Explain the A Cornucopia of Choices on Food Inc.

===A Cornucopia of Choices===
The tomatoes you buy in the grocery store are picked when green and then ripened with ehtylene gas

The food industry doesn’t want you to know the truth about what you are eating because if you did you might not eat it – it is a world deliberately hidden from us

Most people have no idea where their food comes from (do you?)

The fact that people need to write a book (and a blog!) telling people where their food comes from shows how far removed we are

The average grocery store has 47,000 products which makes it look like there is a large variety of choice – but it is an illusion – there are only a few major companies and a few major crops involved