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Flashcards in The American Revolution And New Nation Deck (30)
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Second continental congress

-Authorized the creation of a continental army
-Most people hoped conflict with Britain would be avoided
-Appointed George Washington as leader because of his 1. Temperament 2. Experience in seven years war 3. He was not from MA (which was criticized as a rebellious place)
-Sent George III the Olive Branch Petition that called for reconciliation, NOT war


Common Sense

Pamphlet by Thomas Paine
Attacked monarchy
Very influential


Battle of Yorktown

Defeat of British in VA
Ended Britain's hope of winning the war


Treaty of Paris 1783

Ended the revolutionary war
Britain recognized American independence and gave Americans the territory between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River


Articles of confederation

Est. THE FIRST United States govt
Limited power to central government
Most power to states


Northwest ordinance

Bills (3) authorizing sale of lands in northwest territory to raise money for the federal govt
Laid out procedures for these territories to eventually become states


Thomas Gage

British general and governor of MA
Orders MA Assembly not to meet.... They did anyways
Example of Americans disregard for British
Wanted Britain's troops to halt growth of American militias (caused Paul Revere's "the British are coming....")


Beginning battles

Britain ordered colonists to disperse from Lexington; confused cause 8 fatalities; British saved by reinforcements
British continued to march to concord with larger army
Ethan Allen's Green Mountain Boys captured Ft. Ticonderoga


George Washington was appointed commander of the Continental Army because....

1. His temperament
2. Experience in theSeven Years War
3. He was NOT from MA (where George III thought all of the rambunctious revolutionaries were from)


Henry Lee

Proposed that the colonies should be independent at the Second Continental Congress
Catalyst for Thomas Jefferson's (along with other Enlightened thinkers) drafting of the the Declaration of Independence and a potential constitution based on unalienable rights and personal blame toward George III's misdeeds


Reasons some colonists remained loyal to Britain

- they were a part of England's economic elite
- feared economic repercussions from England
- saw Britain as superior
- based their decisions on practicality and predicted that England would easily defeat the colonies


Slaves during the revolution

-Embraced the Declaration of Independence's motives for colonial freedom, believing it would abolish slavery as well
- some in georgia and south carolina joined the British when the British freed them from slavey
- most from the north joined colonial militias


Continental Army's faults

Poorly disciplined
Frequent desertions
Lack of supplies and money
Nonexistent navy


Continental Army's advantages

-Britain's supply line took 4-6 weeks to ship resources
-The European foreign war was failing in the America's (French and Indian War)
-Washington's leadership: use of defense tactics& understanding that a prolonged war would benefit the colonies
-French aid (exploitation of rivalry with Britain)


Bunker hill

Boston 1775
Colonists lost BUT Britain suffered 1000 casualties


General William Howe

British leader
Wanted t slowly move through colonies
Had to evacuated from hq in Boston for New York (where the colonists tried, but failed to chase them out)



Hired German troops for British
MVP battle: Battle of Trenton (where they lost)


British Blunder of 1777

-Plan: cut off New England from the rest of the colonies as Albany, NY
-Poor execution and military plans
-Led by Howe who went to Philly, not Albany
-Howe's failure to meet other troops in NY cause General "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne to surrender at Saratoga (this loss convinced France to send the Americans more aid)
-Loss at Saratoga made them abandon heir plan


Role of women in the revolution

MVP boycotters
Provided support services for the Continental Army
Spied on British troops
Ran households
Ex. Abigail Adams


Valley forge

Winter in Philly
Soldiers malnourished
Increased desertion
BUT revealed an increase in morale thanks to Baron Von Stueben (a Prussian general who aided the colonists)


George Rodgers Clark

Virginian army commander who defeated the British and their Indian allies securing the Ohio River Vally


General Cornwallis

-Led the British southern campaign
-Attacked by bands of "unofficial" colonial armies led by Francis Marion and other rebels
-Decided to abandon southern strategy and went to VA to take up defense at Yorktown but he and his troops were but off by French and colonial forces
- tried to escape via Chesapeake bay but was forced to surrender causing England to surrender as a whole


Treaty of Paris 1783

Ended the revolutionary war
American diplomats: John Jay, Ben Franklin, and John Adams were MVP and shrewd
Britain formally recognized America's independence
Britain kept Canada but gave the rest of the land from the French and Indian War to America
Us got fishing rights in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
Britain go prewar debts from the colonists
Guaranteed loyalists would be treated as equal cities


Drafting of the state constitutions

-Gave limited power to the governor (since that was the most oppressive prewar position)
-All states but PN and VA adopted bicameral legislatures (which gave more power to the upper house)
- most states based suffrage on property qualifications
- made conscious attempts to broaden the American govt
- included some form of a bill of rights


Articles of Confederation

Was not ratified until 1781
- Constitution proposed by the Continental Congress for ratification by the states
- created a weak central govt (couldn't levy taxes, regulate trade, or raise an army.... Duh #fb:revolution)
- central govt: unicameral legislature (each state had one vote)
- executive branch: Committee of 13 (1 rep from each state)
- required unanimous consent for amendment and ratification


Post-revolution economic distress

- merchants over extended themselves to foreign business
- many veterans hadn't been paid for their service
- AOC didn't allow the national govt to tax
- "Continentals" (new American currency) were made worthless by inflation
*foreign loans (MVP: France) propped up the national govt


Northwest Ordinances

(3: 1784, 85, 87)
- Government regulated sales in the Northwest Territory in order to make a profit
- 84: established a plan to grant settles territories statehood
- 85: est. orderly form of selling land
- 87: stated that any territory with 60K white male settlers could apply for statehood, provided by a bill of rights by the settlers, AND PROHIBITED SLAVERY NORTH OF THE OH RIVER


Shays' Rebellion

Rebellion led by Daniel Shays over inflation and the poor economic
Farmers took arms, closed govt buildings, and freed other farmers from debtors prisons
Gained support of New England states
Put down by paid Bosyon army and lowered taxes
* demonstrated that stronger state and national govts were needed to maintain order


At the beginning of the Revolution, the British were confident of victory because.....

1. There were many loyalists throughout the colonies
2. The Continental Army suffered from poor discipline
3. The British had an outstanding navy
4. The Continental Army was continually lacking in supplies
* NOT because they had outstanding generals like Washington


KY and VA Resolutions

In response to Adams' Alien and Sedition Acts
Attacked federalist's lose construction of the constitution
KY- by Jefferson
VA- by Madison (milder)
Intro ideas of nullification