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Flashcards in The Origins Of The Cold War Deck (28):
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Satellite countries

Eastern European countries that came under the control of the USSR after WWII
USSR argued gang they had liberated these countries from nazis and thus had the right to continue to influence developments there

1

Iron Curtain

Coined by Winston Churchill
"Iron curtain" of communist influence between free western Europe and communist eastern Europe est. by the USSR

2

Containment policy

Proposed by George F. Kennan
Believed the US needed to implement long term military, economic, and diplomatic strategies in order to "contain" the spread of communism
Became official policies in the 1940s

3

Truman doctrine

1947
Stated that the US would support any democratic nation that resisted communism
Enacted to help Turkey and Greece maintain their independence as the USSR tried to invade in order to gain a warm water port of the Black/Mediterranean Sea

4

Marshall Plan

American plan that spent $12bil for the rebuilding of Western Europe after WWII
Produced an economic revival and helped starve off the growth of communist influences
USSR wouldn't be involve because they believed it was a democratic trick

5

Berlin Airlift

American effort that flew supplies to West Berlin after the USSR and East German government blocked the roads to that city for months
Sent supplies for 15mo.s
Caused the USSR to call off the blockade

6

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Military alliance between the US and Western European counties that formed in 1949

7

Warsaw Pact

A military pact between the USSR and Eastern European satellite counties

8

HUAC

House Un-American Activities Committee
Began to investigate the entertainment industry for communist influences (ex. A Mission to Moscow and North Star)
Attacked those who plead the 5th Amendment

9

Blacklist

List created by HUAC and various private individuals in the entertainment industry who might be communists or night have been influenced by communists in the past

10

McCarthyism

Describes the accusations by WI Senator Joseph McCarthy and his supporters in the early 1950s that certain people in the government, academia, and arts were secret communists
Charges were legally unsubstantial
Ex. Alger Hiss case and the Rosenberg trial

11

Domino theory

If on country in a region fell under communist rule then other counties in the region would follow
Justified American involvement in Vietnam

12

Sputnik

First artificial satellite launched in1957 by the USSR
The fact they they beat United States in the space race shocked Americans in the scientific community

13

Revisionists

American historians who claim that the USSR's formation of the iron curtain was a necessary response to America's perceived aggressiveness

14

Potsdam Conference

Truman's first face to face conference with Stalin along with Atlee (replaced Churchill)
For discussing the future of Eastern Europe
Decided to hold wartime crime trials against nazi leaders (Nuremberg trials)
Truman told Stalin about the atomic bomb

15

Hydrogen bomb

Tested at bikini atoll
More powerful than the atomic bomb

16

What did Americans want to do in the Middle East in the years proceeding the Cold War

1. Ensure that the region would not be vulnerable to potential attacks by the USSR
2. Utilize the region as a staging point for potential military advances against the USSR (US placed nuclear missiles in Turkey)

17

Mohammad Mossadeq

Iranian prime minister
Opposed British control which led to British imposed oil embargo on Iran
President Eisenhower feared Iranian nationalism and sent the CIA to est. anti-Mossadeq demonstratons that put a very religious shah in power and strengthened anti-west feelings in the Middle East

18

McCarran-Walter Act

Followed the McCarran Internal Security Act that investigated potential communists
Greatly limited the number of immigrations from asia and Eastern Europe

19

Korean War

Korea was divided into communist USSR north and democratic US south long the 38th parallel
Aggressor: north
Douglas MacArthur was the leader of the UN "peace" forces but Truman fired him because of his insubordination regarding the invasion of China
Armistice reaffirmed boundary at the 38th parallel
Aka the "forgotten war"

20

Army-McCarthy Hearings

McCarthy accused the American military to be full of communists
Proved that he had little proof of his claims
Revealed that McCarthy HAD asked for special favors for his aide who was drafted into the army with bullying tactics
Televised
Made McCarthy lose his power

21

Massive retaliation

Proposed by Eisenhower's Sec. Of State, John Foster Dulles
Believe than containment wasn't enough to stop communist aggression
Eisenhower just hoped the death of Stalin and rise of Khrushchev would calm everything down and HE LATER WARNED OF THE DANGERS OF MILITARY BUILD UP

22

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

French defeat by the Vietnamese over colonization

23

Geneva Accords

Est. a north Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh and a south Vietnam under Bao Dai
Promised elections to be held in the south BUT it was overthrown by communists so the US intervened on behalf of the south

24

Suez Canal crisis

1. Egyptian leader Cnl. Gamal Abul Nasser wanted the US to help build the Aswan Dam but America's refusal sent them for British aid
2. The US cut off Egyptian loans
3. Nasser nationalized the British owned Suez Canal
4. The British and French attacked Egypt
5. Americans wouldn't help so England and France retreated

25

Eisenhower Doctrine

Desperate attempt to prevent the spread of communism by Eisenhower and Dulles
Stated that American arms would be used in the Middle East to prevent communist aggression
Ex. Sent troops to Beirut, Lebanon to put down a rebellion

26

Rio Pact

Est. a defensive alliance in the Western Hemisphere to prevent communism
Eisenhower wanted to protect US business interests in Latin America
Ex. CIA intervention in Guatemala
Led to problems to Fidel Castro's rise to power after Batista was overthrown

27

U-2

US spy plane
Pilot: Francis Gary Powers
Shot down before US/USSR meeting
Eisenhower took full responsibility