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Flashcards in America In An Era Of Turmoil Deck (24)
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New Frontier

Group of domestic policies proposed by JFK
Included Medicare and aid to education and urban renewal
Many of these policies were not enacted until LBJ became president
Advocated by Michael Harrington's The Other America


Great Society

Overreaching plan by LBJ to assist the underprivileged in American society
Included est. of the Department of Housing and Urban Affairs and the Head Start (aided disadvantaged preschoolers) and Medicare programs
Some programs were reduced due to the cost of the Vietnam war
Est. the VISTA program of organized volunteers to work in the poorest communities in the US


Black power

Philosophy of some younger blacks in the 1960s who were impatient with the slow pace of desegregation
Led by Stokely Carmichael and SNCC
It's advocates believed that blacks should create and control their own political and cultural institutions rather than seeking integration into white-dominated society
Most visible (radical) supporters: Black Panthers est. by Bobby Seal and Huey Newton in San Fran.


Roe vs. Wade

Supreme Court decision that made abortion legal (with some restrictions)


Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Congressional resolution following the reports the US Navy ships were fired on by the north Vietnamese off the Vietnam coast
*basically gave the president the power to control the Vietnam war without Congress's approval
Many historian doubt that any attack of US ships ever took place


Students for a Democratic Society

Radical activist student organization created in 1960
Mad that more and more young people were being deployed to Vietnam
Advocate more democratic, participatory society
Opposed the Vietnam war



A movement by young people in the 1960s
Rejected political involvement
Emphasized the need for personal instead of political revolution
Long hair
Drug experimentation
Unconventional living
Ex. Woodstock Music Festival


Kent State University

Campus in OH where 4 students who were part of a protest against the invasion of Cambodia were shot and killed by national guardsmen



Youngest and first catholic president
Best Nixon
Perfect for tv
Est. the New Frontier, the Peace Corps
Launched massive space program to compete with USSR
Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald which was investigated by the Warren Commission


Freedom Riders

Perseverance over discrimination and abuse inspired civil rights movements
Revealed how big of an impact tv would be on the future social movements


March on Washington

MLK's "I have a dream" speech in front of the Lincoln memorial


Civil Rights Act of 1964

Stated that the same standards had to be used to register white and black voters, racial discrimination could not be considered in hiring employees
Made discrimination illegal in public locations
Led to the Voting Rights Act that forbade literacy tests for suffrage
Caused violent attack on protesters in Selma, AL


Kerner commission

Authorized to investigate the cause of civil rights riots
Blamed it on black poverty and lack of hope in black urban communities


Black nationalism

Preached by Malcolm X
Radical movement for black self-improvement
Based on the Nation of Islam (but Malcolm X later rejected it and was assassinated by Islamic extremists)



National Organization for Women
Est. by Betty Friedan
Dedicate to equal pat for women and ending submissive stereotypes


United Farm Workers

Est. by Cesar Chavez
Against farmers (especially grape growers) in CA


Bay of Pigs

CIA failure to invade Cuba after Castro's takeover and USSR intervention
JFK took full responsibility which improved his popularity


Cuban Missile Crisis

Discovery of missiles in communist Cuba made JFK est. naval blockade
USSR contemplated nuclear warfare
Diplomacy prevented catastrophe:
1. US and USSR signed a Limited Test Ban Treaty
2. Est. "hot line" between Washington, D.C. and Moscow
3. US took missiles out of Turkey



Communist guerrillas from north Vietnam


Tet Offensive

Key battle of the Vietnam war
North Vietnamese attacked on the Vietnamese new year (unexpected)
Southern capital, Saigon was attacked
Turned American opinion even more against the war which led to increased propaganda


My Lai Massacre

Revealed Nixon's secret attacks on Cambodia and Vietnamese civilians
Soldiers were using napalm- a chemical the stuck to and burned skin- on civilians



Nixon's plan to slowly withdraw American troops from Vietnam while gradually training the southern Vietnamese


Pentagon Papers

We're leaked by a former Department of Defense employee, DANIEL ELLSBERG
Revealed government deceptions to the public about Vietnam
Exposed Nixon's secret bombings


Equal rights amendment

Equal rights for women
Fell short of passing by one vote
Opposed by Phyllis Shafley