The Ankle Joint Flashcards Preview

Spot Test 2- Lower Limb > The Ankle Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Ankle Joint Deck (28):
1

What type of joint is the ankle

Synovial Hinge Joint

2

What articulations occur at the ankle?

Distal Tibia and Fibula articulate with the trochlea of the talus

3

Movements of the Ankle

Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion

Inversion and Eversion AT SUBTALAR joint

4

Why is dorsiflexion the most stable position

Trochlea of talus is wider anteriorly

In dorsiflexion, Tibia and Fibia are spread apart- tightening their grip on the talus

5

Lateral Ligaments of the Ankle

Anterior and Posterior Talofibular ligaments

Calcaneofibular ligament

6

Medial Ligaments of the Ankle

Medial/Deltoid Ligament
-Tibiotalar parts (anterior and posterior)
-Tibionavicular part
-Tibiocalcaneal part

Plantar Calcaneonavicular Ligament

7

Are the medial or lateral ligaments stronger?

Medial Ligaments

8

How do most Inversion injuries to the ankle occur?

Twisting of a plantar-flexed foot

May cause Lateral Malleolar/Distal Fibula #

9

Why do torn ligaments predispose ankle dislocation

The ligaments are avascular, so heal slowly

Also, if detached from bone, are unlikely to grow back into it

10

X-Ray findings in Ankle injury?

Uneven joint space- 'Talar shift' indicates dislocation

11

What happens in an Eversion Injury to the ankle?

Stronger medial ligament is pulled, avulsing medial malleolus

Talus rotates laterally, fracturing the fibula

12

Functions of the foot

Support/Transmit weight
Levers during propulsion
Resilient spring to absorb shock

13

Joints involved in the Transverse Tarsal Joint

Talocalcaneonavicular Joint
Calcaneocuboid Joint

14

Joint pathologies of the foot

Gout (affected by diet, medication)
Bunions (Hallux Valgus)
Arthritis (osteo or rheumatoid)

15

Arches of the Foot

Medial Longitudinal Arch
Lateral Longitudinal Arch
Transverse Arch

16

Function of the arches of the foot

Distribute weight, act as shock aborbers and increase foot flexibility, propulsion during walking

17

Most important (and highest) arch

Medial Longitudinal

18

Bones of the MLA

Calcaneus, Talus, Navicular, 3 Cuneiforms and Medial 3 Metatarsals

19

Bones of the LLA

Calcaneus, cuboid and lateral 2 metatarsals

20

Bones of the TA

Cuboid, 3 Cuneiforms and all metatarsal bases

21

Passive support of the arches of the foot

Plantar Aponeurosis, Ligaments, shape of foot

22

Dynamic support of the arches of the foot

Intrinsic Plantar Muscles
Extrinsic muscles

23

What is Pes Planus, and who is most commonly affected

Flat foot- loss of arches due to loose/degenerative ligaments

Adolescents/adults

24

Presentations of Pes Planus

Rigid (fusion of tarsal bones)

Flexible (more common) arches present when not weight-bearing

May cause ankle misalignment, ankle/knee pain, infero-medial talus displacement, lower back pain

25

Movements of the digits of the foot

Flexion/Extension
Abduction/Adduction

Both limited

26

What is Lisfranc Injury

Displacement of Metatarsal bones from the tarsus e.g. from a crush injury or a fall

Often hidden presentation

27

Muscles supporting Medial Arch?

Tibialis Anterior and Posterior
Fibularis Longus

28

Muscles supporting Lateral Arch

Extensor tendons
Intrinsic muscles acting on Toe 5