The Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Spot Test 2- Lower Limb > The Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Knee Joint Deck (34):
1

What type of Joint is the Knee

Synovial Hinge Joint

2

Bones of the Knee joint

Distal Femur
Proximal Tibia

(Patella)
(Fibula: not associated with knee joint- mainly just for muscle attachments)

3

Articulations at the knee

Medial Femorotibial
Lateral Femorotibial
Femoropatellar

4

Movements of the knee

Extension
Flexion
Medial/Lateral Rotation

5

When can knee rotation only occur

When knee is flexed and collateral ligaments are relaxed

6

Why is knee flexion not as strong when the hip is extended

Loss of tension of Hamstrings

7

Locking of the Knee

Femur rotates MEDIALLY when approaching full extension

8

Unlocking of the Knee

Popliteus LATERALLY rotates femur

Can't flex the knee without first unlocking

9

Why is the knee least congruent in flexion

Round Femoral Condyles provide less contact upon the Tibial Plateau

10

Functions of the Menisci

Increase Joint Congruity (negligible)
Evenly distribute weight
Shock Absorption
Assist in Knee Locking

11

Which meniscus is attached to its collateral ligament

MEDIAL meniscus is attached to TIBIAL collateral ligament

12

Causes of a Meniscal Tear

Sports Injury
Degenerative Changes e.g Osteoarthritis

13

Symptoms of a meniscal tear

Locking of knee
Pain during movement
Reduced movement

As menisci may become trapped in joint

14

Repair of Meniscal tear

Repair or Resection is limited due to poor blood supply

15

Intra-articular ligaments

ACL and PCL

Inside the joint capsule

16

Extra-articular ligaments

Medial / Lateral (Tibial/Fibular) Collateral Ligaments

17

Origin/ Insertion of ACL

Anterior Intercondyle

->

Lateral Femoral Condyle

18

Function of ACL

Prevents Hyperextension/ Anterior displacement of tibia on femur

19

Injury to ACL

Hyperextension (anterior force)

20

Origin/Insertion of PCL

Posterior Intercondyle

->

Medial Femoral Condyle

21

Function of PCL

Prevents Hyperflexion/ Posterior displacement of tibia on femur

22

Injury to PCL

Landing on Tibial Tuberosity with a flexed knee

23

Which cruciate ligament is strongest?

PCL- main stabiliser of flexed knee e.g. walking downhill

24

Features/ attachments of Fibular/Lateral Collateral Ligament

Flat band, not attached to meniscus

Lateral Femoral Epicondyle

->

Head of Fibula

25

Function of LCL

Prevents Abduction and rotation during knee extension

26

Features/ attachments of Tibial/Medial Collateral Ligament

Cord like band, attached to medial meniscus

Medial Femoral Epicondyle

->

Medial Tibial Condyle

27

Function of MCL

Prevents adduction and rotation during knee extension

28

What is the Unhappy Triad

ACL Tear
MCL Tear
Medial Meniscus tear

Common when flexed knee is excessively laterally rotated

29

Bursae of the Knee

Prepatellar Bursa
Suprapatellar Bursa
Deep Infrapatellar Bursa
Superficial Infrapatellar Bursa

30

Muscles stabilising the patella

Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius pull laterally

Vastus Medialis pulls medially and obliquely

Lip on Lateral Femoral Condyle

31

Why are patellar dislocations more common in females

Greater Q angle (wider and more shallow pelvis)

32

What is genu varum

Bow knee; Increased Q angle

Tibia adducted relative to femur

33

What is genu valgum

Knock knee; Decreased Q-Angle

Tibia abducted relative to femur

34

Changes in osteoarthritis

Reduced Joint Space
Osteophytes (abnormal bone remodelling)
Sclerosis (abnormal bone density)