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Flashcards in The Back Deck (90):
1

kyphosis

exaggerated overcurvature of thoracic area of vertebral column

2

lateral deviation of vertebral column

scoliosis

3

major feature of cervical vertebrae

transverse foramina

4

ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column

anterior longitudinal

5

ligament affected by whiplash injury

anterior longitudinal

6

ligament which limits skull rotation

alar

7

defective portion of vertebra with spondylolithesis in lumbar area

pars interarticularis,lamina

8

common direction of all superior articular facts

posterior

9

vertebra located at level of illiac crest

L4

10

ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae

ligamentum flavum,

11

defective portion of vertebra with spondyloisthesis in cervical region

pedicle

12

structure in contact with posterior surface of dens

transverse ligament of atlas (part of cruciate)

13

most commonly herniated disk

l4-5

14

most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disk

l5

15

spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between c5 and c6

c6

16

thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation

6

17

vertebral level of lumbar puncture

l4

18

innervation of suboccipital muscles

suboccipital nerve

19

roof of suboccipital triangle

semispinalis capitis

20

floor of suboccipital triangle

posterior arch of atlas; posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

21

major vessel within suboccipital triangle

vertebral artery

22

synonym for dorsal ramus of c2

greater occipital nerve

23

inferior extent of spinal cord

lv2

24

inferior extent of dura-arachnoid sac

sv2

25

location of internal vertebral plexus

epidural space

26

what type of joint is the atlanto-occpipital articulation

synovial and condyloid

27

The atlanto axial articulation includes what joints

2 synovia andplane/gliding, and 1 synobial and pivot

28

the zygapophyseal articulation are what type of joints

synovial and plane/gliding

29

what type of cartilagenous joint is the intervertebral disc

secondary cartilagenous joint

30

Cervical dislocations

the slope of the zygapophyseal facets in the cervical region permit superior segments of the cervical column to slide anteriorly on inferior segments; large dislocations can damage the spinal cord

31

Jefferson Burst Fracture

results from trauma directed through the skull and occipital condyles onto the atlas bursting the arch typically the spinal cord is NOT injured

32

hangman fracture

tramautic, hyperextension injury that breaks the pars interarticularis of the axis bilaterally

33

osteoporosis

characterized by the loss of bone density, common in senior/geriatric patients, vertebral fractures are a common occurence

34

fracture of the dens

fractures may result in avascular necrosis of the dens, fragments of the dens may lacerate the spinal cord

35

rupture of the transverse ligament of the atlas

results in compression of the spinal cord by the dens

36

laxity of the transverse ligament of the atlas

this ligament is often absent in patients with down's syndrome and may be lax in certain connective tissue disorders (marfan's syndrome)

37

rupture of the alar ligaments

these are the check ligaments, increased range of motion on contralateral rotation

38

spinal stenosis

narrowing of the vertebral canal; can be caused by protruding intervertebral discs, meningioma, bony changes (aging), hypertrophy of ligaments, denegeration of zygapophyseal joints. symptoms include bilateral extremity pain numbness and weakness

39

excessive kyphosis

exaggerated curvature of thoracic vertebrae

40

excessive lordosis

exaggerated lumbar curve

41

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature of vertebral column

42

anklosing spondyltis

inflammation of the vertebral joints and ligaments, especially in the lumbar region; affected segments fuse resulting in pain and stiffness of the vertebral column

43

epidural anesthesia

injection of an anesthetic agent into the epidural space; can be injectected at the sacral hiatus or posterior sacral foramina

44

spinal anesthetsia

injection into the subarachnoid space, done via a lumbar puncture

45

uncovertebral joints (joints of luschka)

small plane, synovial joints that develop in early adolescence between the uncal processes of cv3-cv7 common sites of osteophyte formation resulting in stenosis of intervertebral foramen and may impinge spinal nerves or vertebral artery

46

what innervates the intervertebral disks

sinuvertebral nerves which arrise from recurrent branches of anterior ventral rami

47

innervation of zygopophyseal joints

posterior dorsal rami from level of joint and one above

48

where is the posterior longitudinal ligament deficient

4 disk

49

where does a postero-lateral herniation occur most commonly

cervical and lumbar regions

50

which roots are affected in a c5-c6 postero lateral herniation

c6 nerve roots or spinal nerve

51

what roots are affected in the l4 l5 postero lateral herniation

l5 nerve roots or spinal nerve

52

a lateral herniation at c5-c6 will likely affect

c6 nerve

53

a lateral herniation at l4-l6 will most likely affect

l4 nerve

54

how do you test the c5 nerve root

strength in deltoid, biceps brachii,
MSR- biceps brachii
sensory-lateral shoulder and lateral arm

55

how do you test the c6 nerve root

strength- biceps brachi, wrist extension
MSR-brachioradialis
sensory-lateral forarm, lateral palm including first digit and possibly second digit

56

how do you test a c7 nerve root

strength-tricepts brachii, wrist flextion
MSR-triceps brachii
sensory-middle finger

57

how do you test a c8 nerve root

strength-finger flexion
MSR-none
Sensory-5th digit and medial forearm, possibly 4th digit also

58

how do you test the T1 nerve root

strength:finger adduction/abduction
MSR-none
sensory-medial arm

59

how do you test the L4 nerve root

strength-tibialis anterior, quadriceps
MSr-patellar tendon
Sensory-medial leg, medail aspect of foot including medial malleolus

60

how you test the l5 nerve root

strength-extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, walk on heels
MSR- tibialis posterior
sensory-dorsum of the foot

61

How do you test S1 nerve root

strength-fiularis longus, walk on toes
MSR-calcaneal (achilles)
sensory- lateral aspect of foot

62

radiculopathy

involves injury/compression of a spinal nerve root. signs and symptoms are restricted to dermatomes and or myotomes

63

polyradiculopathy

refers to involvement of more than 1 nerve root

64

innervation of the suboccipital muscles

posterior ramus of C1 (the suboccipital nerve)

65

greater occipital nerve

sensory nerve which passes through the semispinalis capitis muscle (dysfunction results in paresthesias in the cutaneous territory of this nere

66

intrinsic deep back muscles are innervated by

posterior rami

67

where does the spinal cord terminate

lv2

68

nerves roots below lv2 are called

cauda equina

69

where does the dural sac end

s2

70

spondyloysis

fracture or compromise of the pars interarticularis on the lamina in lumbar vertebrae and pedicles of cervical vertebrae

71

spondylolitehsis

dislocation or slippage between adjacent vertebrae

72

What is the scoring for muscle stretch reflexes

0-absent
1-trace
2-normal
3-hyperactive with clonus
4-hyperactive with clonus (injury to CNS)

73

What is the scoring for muscle strength

0-no contraction/joint movement
1-muscle flicker, no joint movement
2-complete range of motion with your support
3-complete range of motion against gravity
4-complete range of motion against gravity with some resistance
5-complete range of motion against gravity and full resistance

74

what are the extrinsic back muscles

movement the upper limbs and thoracic wall

75

what are the intrinsic back muscles

movement of the back, innervated by posterior rami of spinal nerves

76

what are the 7 cervical vertebra characterized by

small size and presence of a transverse foramen in each transverse process

77

what are the characteristics of the 12 thoracic vertabra

have articular processes for their rib elements

78

atlantooccpital joint

allows the head to nod up and down

79

transverse ligament of the atlas

holds the dens in place

80

atlanto axial joint

allows to shake head side to side saying (no!)

81

alar ligaments

check excessive rotation of the head and atlas relative to the axis

82

illiolumbar ligament

connect to the transverse process to
the pelvic bones

83

sympheses

type of joints between the vertebral bodies

84

synovial joints

between the articular processes

85

zygopophyseal joints

synovial joint between superior and inferior articular processes on adjacent vertebrae

86

uncovertebral joints

lateral margins of the upper surfaces of typical cervica vertebrae are elebated into crests or lips

87

tectorial membrane

part of the posterior longitudinal ligmant that connects cII to the base of the skull

88

ligamentum flava

pass between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae and assists in extension of back to anatomical position

89

ligamentum nuchae

traigular sheet like structure in median sagittal plane; supports the head and resists and facilitates returning head to anatomical position

90

interspinous ligaments

pass between adjacent vertebral spinous processes