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Flashcards in The Upper Extremities Deck (213):
1

When looking at the forearm which bone (radius/ulna) is medial and which is lateral

the radius is lateral
the ulna is medial
(assuming anatomical position

2

What type of joint is the thumb joint of the metacarpal bone of the thumb with the carpus ?

saddle joint

3

What type of joints are the metacarpophalangeal joints ?

condylar joints or ellipsoid joints

4

what type of joints are the interphangeal joints ?

hinge joints

5

What are the muscles that make up the rotator cuff ?

subscapularis, infraspinatus, supraspinatus and the teres minor muscles

6

What is the thenar eminence ?

a soft tissue mount over the palmar aspect of metacarpal 1 and allow the thumb to freely move relative to the other fingers

7

What forms the axillary inlet

lateral margin of rib 1
posterior surface of clavicle
superior margin of the scapula
medial surface of the coracoid process of the scapula

8

the brachial plexus is formed by what nerves ?

anterior rami of cervical spine c5c8 and T1

9

If a doctor wanted to examine a patients lower cervical and T 1 nerves how would they do this ?

they would examine the dermatomes, myotomes, and tendon reflexes in the upper limb (clinical signs of these nerves usually exhibit in the upper limb brachial plexus)`

10

IF you are looking to test the C5 dermatome what test are you going to do?

test the upper lateral region of the arm

11

Where do you test for the C6 dermatome

palmar pad of the thumb

12

Where do you test for the C7 dermatome

pad of the index finger

13

Where do you test for C8 dermatome

pad of little finger

14

how do you test for the T1 dermatome

skin on the medial aspect of the elbow

15

how do you test for the mytome at C5

abduction of the arm at the glenohumeral joint

16

how do you test for the myotome at c6

fletion of the forearm at the elbow joint

17

how do you test for the myotome at c7

extension of the forearm at the elbow joint

18

how do you test for the myotome at c8

flexion of the fingers

19

how do you test for the myotome at t1

abduction and adduction of the index, middle, and ring fingers

20

if a patient is unconcious how do you test for the c6 somatic sensory and motor functions

tap on the cubital fossa

21

if a patient is unconcious how do you test for the somatic sensory and motor functions of c7

tap on the tendon of the triceps posterior to the elbow

22

What spinal cord level is associated with the diaphragm?

C4

23

all of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm are innervated by what nerve

musculocutaneous nerve

24

the musculocutaneous nerve innervates what region of the skin

anterolateral side of the forearm

25

median nerve innervates what region of the skin

palmar surface of the lateral three and one half digits

26

the ulnar nerve innervates what region of the skin

supplies skin on the posterior surface of the forearm and the dorsolateral surface of the hand

27

where does the axillary nerve pass

around the posterior aspect of the upper part of the humerus (surgical neck)

28

where does the radial nerve pass

around the the posterior surface of the middle humerus in the radial groove

29

where does the ulnar nerve pass

passes posteriorrly to the medial epicondyle on the medial side of the distal end of the humerus

30

which tubercle on the humerus is lateral in position

greater tubercle

31

which muscle attaches to the superior facet of the greater tubercle

supraspinatus

32

which muscle attaches to the middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus

infraspinatus

33

which muscle attaches to the inferior facet of the greater tubercle of the hmerus

teres minor

34

what muscle attaches to the less tubercle of the humerus

subscapularis muscle

35

which nerve and artery can be damaged when the surgical neck of the humerus fractures

axillary nerve and the posterior circumflex humeral artery

36

what are the three joints in the shoulder

sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular and the glenohumeral joints

37

what type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint

saddle shoaped synovial jint

38

what are the ligaments that stabilize the sternoclavicular joint

interclavicular ligament, costoclavicular ligament, anteiror and posterior sternoclavicular ligament

39

what type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint?

synovial joint

40

What are the two ligaments in the acromioclavicular joint

acromioclavicular ligament and the coracoclavicular ligament which breaks into the trapezoid ligament and the conoid ligament

41

what type of joint is the glenohumeral joint

ball and socket joint

42

what is the fibrocartilagenous collar on the glenoid cavity called

glenoid labrum

43

what is the vascular supply to the glenohumeral joint /

anterior and posterior circumflex humeral and suprascapular arteries

44

What innervates the glenohumeral joint /

branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and from the suprascapuar, axillary, and lateral pectoral nerves

45

asking a patient to shrug their shoulders against resistance is testing what nerve ?

accessory nerve

46

Trapezius OIIA

origin-superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberence, medial margine of lig nuch, and spinous processes oc C7-T12
insertion-superior edge of the scapula, acromion, posterior border of lateral one third of the clavicle
innervation-spinal accessory nerve
action-elevator of the scapula, rotates scapula, and allows humerus to go above horizontal

47

Deltoid OIIA

origin- inferior edge of spine of scapula, lateral margin of acromion, anterior border of lateral 1/3 of clavicle
insertion-deltoid tuberosity
innervation-axillary nerve C5
action- abductor of arm

48

Levator Scapulae OIIA

origin- transverse processes of C1-C2 and posterior tubercles of C3 and C4
insertion- medial border of scapula superior angle to root of spine
innervation- anterior rami of C4 and C4 and branches of C5 dorsal scapular nerve
action-elevates the scapula

49

Rhomboid Minor OIIA

origin- spinous processes of C7-T1
insertion- posterior surface of medial border of scapula
innervation-dorsal scapular nerve c4c5
action- elevates and retracts the scapula

50

Rhomboid Major OIIA

origin-spinous processes of T2-T5
insertion-posterior surface of medial border of scapula
innervation- dorsal scapular nerve
action- elevates and retracts the scapula

51

supraspinatus OIIA

origin- medial 2/3rds of supraspinous fossa
insertion-superior facet of greater tubercle
innervation- suprascapular nerve, C5
action-rotator cuff muscle

52

infraspinatus OIIA

origin-medial 2/3rds of infraspinous fossa
insertion-middle facet of greater tubercle
innervation-suprascapular nerve C5
action-rotator cuff

53

teres minor OIIA

origin-posterior surface of scapula near lateral border
insertion-inferior facet of greater tubercle
innervation-axillary nerve, C5
action-rotator cuff muscle

54

teres major OIIA

origin- oval area of posterior surface of inferior angle of the scapula
insertion medial ip of the intertubercular sulcus on anterior surface of humerus
innervation-inferior subscapular nerve, c5,6,7
action- medial rotation and extension of arm

55

long head of triceps brachii OIIA

origin-infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
insertion-olecranon process
innervation-radial nerve c7
action- extension of forearm at the elbow joint

56

What forms the suprascapular foramen

route through which structures pass between the base of the neck and the posterior scapular region formed by the suprascapular ligament, (nerve passes through the foramen and the artery and vein pass over the ligament

57

What forms the quadrangular space ?

inferior margin of teres minor, surgical neck of humerus, superior margin of teres major and lateral margin of the long head of the triceps brachii

58

What makes the triangular space?

medial margin of the long head of the triceps brachii
superior margin of the teres major
inferior margin of the teres minor

59

What vein and artery pass through the triangular space

circumflex scapular artery and vein

60

what makes up the triagular interval

lateral margin of the long head of triceps brachii
shaft of the humerus
inferior margin of the teres major

61

What nerves and or artery or veins pass through the triagular interval

radial nerve, profunda brachii artery and profunda brachii vein

62

what two muscles does the suprascapular nerve innervate /

infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles

63

the axillary nerve innervates ?

deltoid and the teres minor muscles

64

what function does the superior lateral cutaneous nerve have ( branch of the axillary nerve)

general sensation from the skin over the inferior part of the deltoid muscle

65

what three major arteries are found in the posterior scapular region?

suprascapular, posterior circumflex humeral, and the circumflex scapular arteries

66

Quadrangular space syndrome ?

hypertrophy of the quandrangular space muscles or fibrosis of the muscle edges may impinge the axillary nerve which produces atrophy of the teres minor muscle and may affect the control of the rotator cuff muscles exert on shoulder movement

67

the suprascapular artery is a branch of the _______ artery

subclavian artery

68

how is the axillary inlet formed

lateral margin of rib 1, clavicle, superior margin of scapula to coracoid process

69

how is the anterior wall of the axilla formed ?

pectoralis major and minor muscles, subclavius muscles and clavipectoral fascia

70

how is the lateral wall formed of the axilla

intertubercular sulcus

71

how is the posterior wall formed of the axilla

subscapularis, teres major, and latissimus dorsi muscles, and long head of triceps brachii muscle

72

how is the medial wall of the axilla formed

upper thoracic wall and serratus anterior muscles

73

how is the floor of the axilla formed

skin of armpit

74

pectoralis major OIIA

origin-clavicular head, sterunum, and first 7 costal cartilages and sternal end of 6th rib
insertion-lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
innervation-medial and lateral pectoral nerves, clavicular head and sternocostal head c5 and c7
action- flexion, addiction and medial rotation of arm

75

subclavius OIIA

origin-first rib at junction between rib and costal cartilage
insertion- groove on inferior surface of middle one-third of clavicle
innervation-nerve to subclavias c5, c6
action- pulls tip of sholder down, clavical medially and stabilizes sternoclavicular joint

76

pectoralis minor OIIA

origin- anterior surfaces and superior borders of ribs 3-5
insertion- coracoid process of scapula
innervation-medial pectoral nerve c7c8
action-pulls tip of sholder down, protracts scapula

77

serratus anterior OIIA

origin-lateral surfaces of upper 8-9 ribs
insertion-costal surface of medial border of scapula
innervation-long thoracic nerce c5
action-protraction of scapula, keeps medial border and inferior angle of scapula opposed to thoracic wall

78

what structuress pass between the subclavius and the pectoralis minor muscles

cephalic ein, thoraco-acromial artery, and the lateral pectoral nerve

79

what structure passes through the medial wall and into the axilla ?

intercostobrachial nerve

80

what happens when there is damage to the long thoracic nerve

winged scapula

81

subscapularis OIIA

origin- medial two thirds of subscapular fossa
insertion- lesser tubercle of humerus
innervation- upper and lower subscapular nerves c6
action- rotator cuff muscle, medial rotation of arm

82

Latisimus dorsi OIIA

origin-spinous processes of lower 6 thoracic vertebrae and iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs

83

what is the floor of the axilla supported by

clavipectoral fascia

84

biceps brachii OIIA

orgin- supraglenoid tubercle of scapulal apex of coracoid process
insertion- tuberosity of radius
innervation- musculocutaneous nerve c5, c6
action-powerful flexor of forearm at the elbow joint and supinator of forearm

85

coracobrachialis OIIA

origin-apex of coracoid process
insertion- linear roughening on midshaft of humerus on medial side
innervation- musculocutaneous nerce c567
action- flexor of the arm at the glenohumeral joint; adducts arm

86

What does the superior thoracic artery supply

upper regions of the medial and anterior axillary walls

87

what does the thoracoacromial artery supply

anterior axillary wall and related regions

88

what does the lateral thoracic artery supply

medial and anterior walls of the axilla

89

what artery helps supply blood to the breast

lateral thoracic artery supply

90

what supplies blood to the glenoid humeral joint

anterior circumflex humeral artery and posterior circumflex artery

91

where is a good place to insert a needle to give patients fluids

anatomical stuff box or cubital fossa

92

the brachial plexus is a somatic plexus fromed by the anterior rami of what ?

c5-c8 and T1 anterior ramus

93

what are the four major parts of the brachial plexus

trunks, divisions, cords, and terminal nerves

94

What are the three trunks of the brachial plexus

superior trunk which is formed from the union of C5 and C6
middle trunk which is from C7
inferior trunk which is formed from the union of C8 and T1 rami

95

lateral cord

results from the union of the anterior from C5 and C6 and the anterior of C7

96

medial cord

contributions from C8 and T1

97

posterior cord

has contributions from all of the roots of the brachial plexus

98

What are the branches from the roots of the brachial plexus

the long thoracic and the dorsal scapular nerve and contributions to phrenic nerve originate from the C5 root (long thoracic is from the C5, C6, and C7 roots)

99

What are the branches from the trunks of the brachial plexus

suprascapular nerve and the nerve to the subclavian; both come from the superior trunk

100

What are the branches from the cords of the brachial plus

lateral- lateral pectoral nerve
posterior- superior subscapular nerve, thoracodorsal nerve, inferior subscapular nerve
medial-medial pectoral nerve, medial brachaial cutaneous, median antebrachrial cutaneous

101

what does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate ?

rhomboid major and the rhomboid minor muscles

102

what does the long thoracic nerve innervate ?

serratus anterior muscle

103

What does the suprascapular nerve innervate ?

supraspinatus and the infraspinatus muscles

104

What does the nerve to the subclavius innervate ?

subclavius muscle

105

What does the lateral pectoral nerve innervate

pectoralis major muscle

106

what does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate

all three flexor muscles of the arm

107

what does the medial pectoral nerve innervate

pectoralis minor muscle

108

Dupuytren's contracture

pathological thickening and contraction of tthe palmar aponeurosis due to mechanical microtraumas (carpenters) and the fingers are permanently in flexion

109

carpel tunnel syndrome

inflammatory processes of the carpal tunnel put pressure on the median nerve

110

what is the component that helps for the carpel tunnel

flexor retinaculum

111

What are the components of the palm?

thenar, hypothenar, and mesothenar

112

What are the four thenar muscles

abductor policis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, adductor pollicis

113

Abductor pollicis brevis (OIIA)

origin-scaphoid and flexor retinaculum
insertion- palmar base of 1st phalanx
action- abducts the thumb
innervation- median nerve

114

all of the thenar muscles are innerated by the median nerve execept for

adductor pollicis

115

flexor pollicis brevis

origin- flexor retinaculum and trapezium, trapezoid, capitum
insertion-palmar base of 1st phalanx via radial sesamoid bone
action- flection of 1st metacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints
innervation- median nerve and ulnar nerve for deep head

116

opponens pollicis

origin-trapezium flexor retinaculum
insertion- radial margin of 1st metacarpal
action-opposition of thumb
innervation-median nerve

117

adductor pollicis

origin-transverse head and shaft of 3rd metacarpal, capitate
insertion-palmar base of 1st proximal phalanx via ulnar sesamoid bone
action-adducts the thumb
innervation-deep branch ulnar nerve

118

what are the hypothenar muscles

palmaris brevis
abductor digiti minimi
flexor digiti minimi
opponens digiti minimi

119

what is the most superficial muscle of hypothenar muscles

abductor digiti minimi

120

palmaris brevis OIIA

origin-palmore aponeurosis flexor retinaculum
insertion- radiates into skin covering hypothenar
action- medial pull on palmar aponeurosis
innervation- superficial branch of ulnar nerve

121

abductor digiti minimi OIIA

origin- psiform, pisofrmhamate ligament
insertion- ulnar base of 5th proximal phalanx
action-abduction and flexion of the 5th metacarpophalgneal joint
innervation- ulnar nerve deep branch

122

flexor digiti minimi

origin- hamulus of hamate
insertion- ulnar base of 5th proximal phalanx
action- flection of 5th metacarpophangeal joint
innervation-ulnar nerve deep branch

123

What are the mesothenar musles

palmar interossei, dorsal interossei and lumbricals

124

palmar interossei OIIA

orgin-ulnar side of metacarpal 1-2 and radial side of metacarpals 3-4
insertion-extensor digitorum tendons
action- adduction of 1,2,3,4,5 and flexes mP joints and extends IP joints
inneration-ulnar nerve deep branch

125

dorsal interossei

origin-adjacent sides of all metacarpals
insertion- extensor digitorum tendons, radial side of prox phalanges 2,3 and ulnar side of base f prox phlanges 3,4
action-abduction of digits 2,4, and 5 flexes MP joints and extends IP joints
innervation- ulnar nerve

126

lumbricals

origin-radial sides of flexor digitorum profundus tendons
inserstion-extensor digitorum tendons
action- flexes metacarpophalngeal joints, extends IP joints 2-5
innvervation- ulnar nerve (deep branch)

127

Classify the growth plates

synchondrosis primary cartilagenous

128

type of joint the sternoclavicular joint is

synovial and saddle

129

what type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint ?

synovial, plane/gliding

130

carpometacarpal (digits 2-5) what type of joint

synovial, plane/gliding

131

what type of joint is the carpometacarpal of digit 1

synovial, saddle

132

intermetacarpel joint (what type of joint is this?)

synovial, plane, plane/gliding

133

what type of joint is the metacarpo-phalangeal

synovial, condyloid

134

What type of joint is the DIp/PIP

synovial, hinge

135

What are the unequivocal dermatomes ?

c6 thumb
c7 middle finger
c8 5th fingerT1 medial forearm and arm (distal arm)

136

Duputren's contracture

pathological thickening and shortening of the longitudinal bundles of the palmar aponeurosis, draws fingers into palm to such a degree that they become useless. Can mimic an ulnar claw since it commonly affects digits 4/5 (1 of three interpretations of "hand of benediction")

137

What bone is the most commonly fractured bone in the body

clavicle specifically the middle 1/3

138

What are the structures that can be in danger of injury when the clavicle fractures

suprascapular Vein artery and nerve, suprascapular ns, brachial plexus and the subclavian vein

139

when a person completely dislocaters their shoulder joint what ruptures

acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments

140

what is bursitis

inflammation of the subdeltoid and subacromial bursa

141

What is the most commonly ruptures rotator cuff injury ?

supraspinatus

142

what is the drop arm test ?

ask patient to lower arm to 90 degree of abduction; failure to lower the arm in smooth controlled fashion or with pain suggests tear of the supraspinatus tenton

143

anterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint

often tears the joint capsule and detaches labrum and can result in fracture of the humerus head

144

boxers fracture

fracture of the 5th metacarpal

145

golfer's wrist

pain and tenderness in the palm or wrist sauced by a hairline fracture of the hook of the hamate

146

falls on the outstretched hand results in

youth- displacement of distal radial epiphysis
adolescent-clavicular fractrue
ederly- fracture of the distal radius approximately 1 inch proximal to the radiocarpal joint

147

What is the most frequently fractured carpal bone

scaphoid

148

What is the most commonly dislocated carpal bone

lunate and when dislocated can impinge on the carpal bone

149

What is the terrible triad ?

injury to the elbow characterized by location, radial head fracture and avulsion of the coronoid process

150

Tommy John surgery

reconstruction of a torn ulnar collateral ligament; carries serious risk of injury to the ulnar lerve as it passses behind the medial epicondyle

151

Subluxation/dislocation of the radial head

a sudden yank on the arm of a young child can tear the annular ligament resulting in a partial or complete dislocation (baby siters elbow or nursemaids elbow)

152

colles fracture

transverse fracture of the distal radius with dorsal displacement of the hand, radiographs reveal dorsal angulation of the distal radial metaphysis

153

Allen Test

tests the integrity of communication between the ulnar and radial arteries in the hand' pt will make a tight fist and the radial and ulnar arteries are compressed at the wrist, the pt opens the hand (pale) and when the ulnar compression is removed if the circulation is intact normal color will return, if hand remains pale the ulnar circulation to the hand is insufficient

154

What takes over for returning blood from the upper extremity when the axillary vein is lacerated ?

cephalic vein

155

how does avascular necrosis of the scaphoid bone occur ?

non-union of distal fragment of scaphoid with proximal fragment results in loss of blood supply

156

lymphedema

an accumulation of lymph in the interstitial space of tissue/region resulting in swelling

157

MSR of biceps tests what

c5-c6 (musculocutaneous nerve)

158

MSR of brachioradilais tests what

c6 radial nerve

159

MSR of triceps

c7-c8 radial nerve

160

Erbs Duchenne's palsy (erb's palasy)

injury to the c5 and c6 nerve roots or upper trunk due to traction placed on the neck

161

Klumpke's Palsy

injury to c8, T1 nerve roots leads to paralysis of of intrinsic hand muscles, claw hand

162

winged scapula

signifiant weakness in abducting the limb beyond 90 degrees, loss of scapular fixation scapula will project posteriorly

163

What is in danger during radical mastetctomy (trauma to the lateral chest wall)

long thoracic nerve

164

Radial tunnel syndrome

entrapment of the posterior interosseous nerve within the supinator canal characterized by weakness in the extension at the MP joint, weakness in thumb abduction and extension and weakness in wrist extension (ECR and brachioradialis are sparred and no sensory deficits)

165

Ape hand

appearance due to decreased wrist flextion, supination of the hand, thumb in neutral position, median nerve injury

166

carpal tunnel syndrome

results in paresthesias of lateral 3 and 1/2 fingers and the distal portion of the palm with paresis in flextion, abduction and opposition of the thumb wasting of thenar eminence and loss of grasp reflex

167

pronator syndrome

entrapment of the median nerve between the heads of the prontator teres (pain in proximal forearm and paresthesias in median nerve distribution)

168

anterior interosseous syndrome

inflammation/injury to anterior interosseous nerve resulting in weakness of FDP, FPL and pronator teres

169

Tinel's sign/test

percussion of nerve to replicate symptoms of nerve impingement can be median nerve at wrist to replicate carpal tunnel syndrome symptons or at the ulnar nerve at the elbow to replicate cubital tunnel syndrome

170

phalen's test

place dorsum of right and left hand together with wrists flexed this increasees pressure in carpal tunnel, decreases space in carpal tunnel to try to replicate symptoms in the patient

171

finkelsteins test

tests for de Quervains tenosynovitis; place the thumb under the 2nd and 3rd digit in fist and ask the patient to medially deviate the wrist

172

elements of the cubital fossa

tendon of bicepts, braachial artery and median nerve

173

de Quervains stenosing tenovaginitis

local thickening of the sheath for the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus tendons on the dorso lateral aspect of teh hand

174

boutonniere deforimiy

damage to extensor expansion results in flexion of middle and extension of distal phalange

175

mallet finger

partial avulsion of extensor tendon; flextion of distal phalanx

176

trigger finger

stenosing tenosynovitis involving flexor tendon results in clicking during flexion and extension

177

Jersey finger

tearing of the flexor digitorum profundus from the distal phalanx affected finger is stuck in extension

178

raynauds syndrome

idopathic sympatehtic dysregulation of upper limb vasculature characterized by pain and numbness and ischemai of digits

179

thoracic outlet syndrome

compression of neuovascular structures as they cross the first rib at the superior thoracic aperature

180

humeral lateral nodes

posteromedial to the axillary vein (they receive most of the lymphatic drainage from the upper limb

181

pectoral nodes

occur along the inferior margin of the pectoralism minor muscle along the course of the lateral thoracic vessels and receive drainage from the abdominal wall, chest and mammary glands

182

subscapular nodes

posterior axillary wall drain the posterior axillary wall and receive lymphatics from back, shoulder and neck

183

central nodes

in axillary fat receive tributaries from humeral, subscapular, and pectoral groups of nodes

184

apical nodes

most superior group and drain all of the other groups of nodes in the regions and also drain the cephalic vein that drains the mammary gland

185

the trochlea articulates with which bone ?

ulna

186

coracobrachialis

origin-apex of coracoid process
insertion- linear roughening on midshaft of humerus
innervation-musculocutaneous nerve
action- flexor of forearm at the glenohumeral joint

187

biceps brachii

origin- supraglenoid tubercle of scapula and apex of coracoid process
insertion- radial tuberosity
innervation-musculocutaneous nerve
action-flexor of the forearm at the elbow joint

188

brachialis muscle

origin-anterior of humerus
insertion- tuberosity of ulna
innervation- msculocutaneous nerve
action- powerful flexor of the forearm at the elbow joint

189

tricepps brachi muscle

origin- infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, posterior surface of humerus
insertion- olecranon
innervation-radial nerve
action- extensor of forearm

190

at the elbow joint the brachial artery divides into what ?

radial and ulnar arteries

191

what forms the cubital fossa

brachioradialis muscle and pronator teres

192

what goes through the cubital fossa

tendon of biceps brachi, brachial artery and median nerve

193

during and the ulna and the radius are held togeter by what

anular ligament of radius, interosseous membrane, and the articular disk at the distal radio ulnar joint

194

flexor carpi ulnaris

origin-medial epicodondyle of hum and olecranon of ulna
insertion- psiform bone
innervation-ulnar nerve
action-flexes and adducts the wrist joint

195

palmaris longus

origin- medial epicondyle of humerus
insertion-palmar aponeurosis of hand
innervation-median nerve
action-flexion of wrist joint

196

flexor carpi radialis

origin-medial epicondyle of humerus
insertion-base of metacarpals 2 and 3
innervation-median nerve
action- flexes and abducts wrist

197

pronator teres

origin-medial epicondyle and coronoid process of ulna
insertion-lateral surface, midshaft of radius
innervation-median nerve
action-pronation

198

flexor digitorum superficialis

origin-humerus and radius
insertion-palmar surfaces of middle phalanges
innervation-median nerve
action-flexes proximal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring and little fingers

199

flexor digitorum profundas

origin-anterior and medial surfaces of ulna and meidal half of interosseous membrane
insertion-palmar surfaces of middle ring, and little fingers
innervation-lateral half of median nerve
action-flexes distal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers

200

flexor pollicis longus

origin-anterior surface of radius and radial half of interosseous membrane
insertion-palmar surface of base of distal phalanx of thumb
innervation-median nerve
action-flexes interphalangeal joint of thumb

201

pronator quadratus

origin-linear ridge on distal anterior surface of ulna
insertion-distal anterior surface of radius
innervation-median nerve
action-pronation

202

brachioradialis

origin
insertion
innervation
action

203

extensor carpi radialis longus

origin
insertion
innervation
action

204

extensor carpi radialis brevis

origin
insertion
innervation
action

205

extensor digitorum

origin
insertion
innervation
action

206

extensor digiti minimi

origin
insertion
innervation
action

207

extensor carpi ulnaris

origin
insertion
innervation
action

208

aconeus

origin
insertion
innervation
action

209

supinator

origin
insertion
innervation
action

210

abductor pollicis longus

origin
insertion
innervation
action

211

extensor pollicis brevis

origin
insertion
innervation
action

212

extensor pollicis longus

origin
insertion
innervation
action

213

extensor indicis

origin
insertion
innervation
action