Flashcards in The BIOS: Configuring CMOS Deck (46)
The BIOS uses _______ to access system settings required to start a computer.
You can configure CMOS settings using a tool called ______.
The CMOS setup program or the System Setup Utility
CMOS settings are sometimes erroneously called ______.
The BIOS setup settings
The CMOS setup utility starts _________.
When a computer is booting up.
Instructions for accessing the CMOS setup utility displays during ________.
A CMOS setup utility typically enables users to configure:
• Basic settings
• Diagnostics and error handling
• Memory management
• A password prompt
• Boot options
• Power management
CMOS setup utility: basic settings
All CMOS utilities enable you to change basic settings, such as the types and sizes of drives and whether or not they are enabled. You can also set the system time and date.
CMOS setup utility: Diagnostic and error handling
Some newer motherboards support diagnostic and error handling. If there's a problem with the setup, the computer emits one or more beeps during the POST. Each beep has a different meaning depending on the nature of the error.
CMOS setup utility: Memory management
You can view RAM settings, such as the size, frequency, and voltage of installed RAM. These settings are detected automatically.
Improper settings can result in permanent system damage. So even if your CMOS setup utility allows it, these settings should never be changed unless expressly recommended by the motherboard and memory manufacturers.
CMOS setup utility: A password prompt
You can configure a password prompt to display at boot time, before the OS, to add a layer of security.
CMOS setup utility: boot options
You can set boot options, such as the order in which the drives are checked for a bootable OS. You can also choose to disable booting of specific drives or devices.
CMOS setup utility: power management
You can control how different devices in the system manage their power
Most CMOS setup utilities include pages that list:
• Advanced BIOS features
• Advanced chipset features
• Integrated peripherals
• Plug and Play (PnP)/Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) configuration
What are some of the characteristics of a typical CMOS setup utility?
A. It enables you to view RAM settings, such as the size and frequency of installed RAM
B. It includes options for specifying how different devices in the system should manage their power
C. It contains options for configuring screen resolution
D. It enables you to configure Windows administrator passwords
A and B
Most CMOS setup utilities enable you to configure:
• Security settings
• The boot sequence
• Power settings
• The date and time
• Virtualization options
A CMOS setup utility enabled you to secure a computer using different methods, including the use of:
• Boot passwords
• Drive lock protection
• Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs)
• A CMOS password
CMOS setup utility: boot passwords
You can set a boot password that prevents unauthorized users from booting the OS
CMOS setup utility: Drive lock protection
You can set a password to a HDD preventing unauthorized access
CMOS setup utility: Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs)
You can configure a HDD to work only on the motherboard that contains the corresponding TPM
A TPM chip identifies specific hardware by its _____.
CMOS setup utility: CMOS passwords
You can password protect the CMOS setup utility on some motherboards. This password is separate from the boot time and OS passwords. This prevents unauthorized changes to the CMOS settings.
All bootable HDDs have a ____ that's reserved for bootup information.
You can prevent viruses from infecting the boot sector by ___________.
Disabling writing to the boot sector after installing or upgrading the OS.
When a computer boots up, it looks in the ______ of its drives for the startup settings of the OS.
The _____ specifies the order in which disks are queried for boot sector information.
The advanced configuration and power interface, or ACPI, standard identifies four power profiles:
S1 state, S2 state, S3 state, and S4 state
ACPI stands for:
Advanced Configurations and Power Interface
Power profiles: S1 state
Computer power is on but not supplied to the monitor or hard disks. You can reactivate the monitor and hard disks by moving the mouse, pressing a key on the keyboard, or pressing the power button. The computer quickly returns to its active state so you can resume working.
Power profiles: S2
The computer is on except for the monitor, HDDs, and the processor. You can reactivate the computer by moving the mouse, pressing a key on the keyboard, or pressing the power button.
Power profiles: S3
The computer is off except for its RAM, which maintains power to keep its contents active. This is known as sleep or suspend mode. The computer quickly returns to an active state when you move the mouse, press a keyboard button, or press the power button.
Power profiles: S4
RAM contents are copied to the HDD and the computer turns off. When it is turned back on, the RAM contents are returned to the RAM chip(s) so that the computer doesn't have to boot up. The S4 state is usually called hibernation mode. You press the power button to return the computer to an active state.
In the CMOS utilities, you can also use the ______ to control fan behavior.
Power management options
You can set the system date and time using the ______.
Some computers can be overclocked to _______.
Improve their performance
______ improves the computers performance but it increases the power used by components and the amount of heat that they generate. This may cause system instability.
Normally, the ______ enables the motherboard to provide the correct voltage and clock speed automatically.
To overclock a system, you need to _________.
Manually change the CPU multiplier and voltage for various components
The ____ is the speed at which a pulse of electricity is generated before being sent to the CPU.
The clock speed is measured in _______.
Megahertz or MHz
The ______ is the number of CPU cycles for each pulse of electricity from the clock chip.
Overclocking a CPU involves increasing the _____.
A _______ is a simulation of a computer than runs all the processes you'd run on a physical computer.
Virtual machine or VM
The VMs function like completely separate machines but share______.
The physical computer's underlying hardware resources
Some operating systems require that you enable VMs at the ______ using the CMOS setup utility
Turning a computer off for 30 seconds or so before turning it back on is called ______.