Messer 801 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Messer 801 Notes Deck (150)
1

BIOS

Basic Input/Output System

2

What is the BIOS?

A computer's firmware (software) that facilitates the communication between the computer's hardware and Operating System

3

What can you do with the BIOS?

Configure boot order
Enable/Disable system components
Enable/Disable system features (e.g., system password)
Edit hardware settings

4

Where are the BIOS settings stored?

On the CMOS chip

5

CMOS

Complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor

6

How is the CMOS configuration maintained?

With a battery on the motherboard. This battery maintains the integrity of the data should the computer lose power.

7

What are the main types of motherboard form factors?

ATX
microATX
ITX form-factor

8

ATX

Advanced Technology extended;
Standardized by Intel in 1995

9

microATX

Small form factor
Backward compatibility with similar mounting points and power connections as a full-size ATX motherboard

10

ITX form factor

Mini-ITX. Pico-ITX, Nano-ITX, Mobile-ITX
Various small form factor sizes

11

PCI

Peripheral Component Interconnect
Legacy expansion slot
Speeds: 133 MB/s to 533 MB/s

12

PCI-X

PCI Extended
Designed for servers
1,064 MB/s throughput

13

PCIe

PCI Express
Serial communication - 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 16x, 32x lanes
High performance for devices like high-end graphics adapters
Speeds from 250 MB/s to 2 GB/s

14

AGP

Accelerated Graphics Port
Covers the gap between PCI and PCIe
AGP 1x - 266 MB/s
AGP 2x - 522 MB/s
AGP 4x - 1.07 GB/s
AGP 8x - 2.1 GB/s

15

Types of custom workstations

Graphics/CAD/CAM
Audio/Video editing
Virtualization Workstation
Gaming PC
Home Theater PC
Standard Think Client
This Client

16

Graphics/CAD/CAM

Processor, Video, and RAM
Maximum RAM

17

Audio/Video editing

Video, and storage
Fast storage and dual displays

18

Virtualization Workstations

Processor and RAM
Maximum CPU and RAM

19

Gaming PC

Processor, Video, and Audio
High-end cooling

20

Home Theater PC

Video, Audio
HDMI, surround sound, TV tuner

21

Standard thick client

Recommended Windows requirements

22

Thin client

Basic applications

23

Northbridge

• Manages the connection between the CPU and memory
• Connect high-end graphics (AGP or PCI Express)
• Integrated into newer CPUs, including processor cores, memory controller, and the GPU

24

Southbridge

• Relatively slower connections than the Northbridge
• USB, Ethernet, PATA, SATA, etc.

25

SIMM

• Single In-Line Memory Module
• 72-pins
• Electrical pins are the same on both sides

26

RIMM

• Rambus In-Line Memory Module
• 184-pin
• Proprietary
• Every slot must be filled with a Continuity and Termination RIMM (CT-RIMM)

27

DIMM

• Dual In-Line Memory Module
• Electrical contacts are different on each side
• SDRAM - 168 pins
• DDR SDRAM - 184 pins
• DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM - 240 pins

28

SO-DIMM

• Small Outline DIMM
• Laptops and mobile devices
• DDR and DDR2 SDRAM - 200 pins
• DDR3 SDRAM - 204 pins

29

ROM

Read only memory
Cannot be changed or erased

30

PROM

Programmable read only memory
Write once

31

EPROM

Erasable Programmable Read only memory
Write/erase/write again

32

EEPROM

Electrically Erasable PROM
Flash memory

33

SRAM

Static RAM
Maintains data without constant refreshing
Very fast and expensive
Used often for processor caches

34

DRAM

Dynamic RAM
Requires constant refreshing to maintain data

35

SDRAM

Synchronous Dynamic RAM
Synchronous with the system clock

36

DDR

Double Data Rate SDRAM
Twice the data rate of SDRAM
Used often in processor caches

37

DDR2

Double Data Rate 2 SDRAM
2x the bus clock multiplier of DDR

38

DDR3

Double Data Rate 3 SDRAM
4x the bus clock multiplier of DDR

39

Parity memory

Additional parity bit for error detection for single bit errors
Cannot repair the errors

40

Error Correction Code

ECC
Detects errors and corrects them on the fly
Ideal and typically used in server machines
Too expensive and impractical for standard workstations

41

Multi-channel memory

DDR RAM
Installed in pairs or trios for maximum throughput
Memory channels have identical colors

42

Steps to install expansion card

1. Check motherboard documentation for types and number of slots
2. Check adapter card documentation for software and hardware requirements
3. Use ESD strap, anti-static bag, and other ESD precautions
4. Confirm driver installation through Windows Device Manager
(May need to download the driver from the manufacturer's website)

43

CD

700 MB

44

DVD

Single layer - 4.7 GB
Dual layer - 8.5 GB

45

Blu-ray

Single layer - 25 GB
Dual layer - 50 GB

46

ROM

Read only memory
Cannot write to media

47

RW

Read/Write
Used for backups

48

RAID 0

Striping
Splits data across 2 drives
Fast writing but no redundancy
Minimum of 2 drives required

49

RAID 1

Mirroring
Data is duplicated across drives
Slow write speeds but complete redundancy
Minimum of 2 drives required

50

RAID 5

Striping with Parity
Data is striped with parity
Efficient use of disk space and good redundancy
Minimum of 3 drives

51

RAID 1 + 0

Striped file blocks across mirrored drives
High disk utilization and high redundancy
Minimum of 4 drives required

52

Socket T

Intel
775 pins
LGA
Later Pentium 4s ad Core 2
DDR2/DDR3

53

Socket B

Intel
1,366 pins
LGA
Core i7
DDR3 (triple channel)

54

Socket H

Intel
1,156 pins
LGA
Core i3/i5/i7 (Nehalem)
DDR3 (Dual channel)

55

Socket H2

Intel
1,155 pins
LGA
Core i3/i5/i7 (Sandy Bridge)
DDR3 (Dual channel)

56

Socket 940

AMD
940 pins
PGA
Athlon 64 FX
DDR (dual channel)

57

Socket AM2/AM2+

AMD
940 pins
PGA
Athlon 64 (FX, X2)/ Phenom Xx
DDR2 (dual channel)

58

Socket F

AMD
1,207 pins
LGA
Athlon 64 FX
DDR2 (dual channel)

59

Socket AM3

AMD
941 pins
PGA
Athlon II/Phenom II
DDR2/DDR3 (dual channel)

60

Socket AM3+

AMD
942 pins
PGA
Athlon II/Phenom II
DDR2/DDR3 (dual channel)

61

Socket FM1

AMD
905 pins
PGA
A Series/Athlon II
DDR3 (Dual channel)

62

Maximum number of devices for USB

127

63

USB 1.0/1.1

Low speed: 1.5 Mbps, 3 meters
High speed: 12 Mbps, 5 meters

64

USB 2.0

480 Mbps, 5 meters

65

USB 3.0

4.8 Gbps, 3 meters

66

802.11a

5 GHz, 54 Mbps, 120 meters

67

802.11b

2.4 GHz, 11 Mbps, 140 meters

68

802.11g

2.4 GHz, 54 Mbps, 140 meters

69

802.11n

5/2.4 GHz, 600 Mbps, 250 meters

70

IEEE 1394a

Firewire 400
100, 200, and 400 Mbps half duplex
4.5 meters (15 feet), 72 meters max

71

IEEE 1394b

Firewire 800
800 Mbps full duplex
Optical connections - 100 meters max

72

IrDA

Infrared
4 Mbps
Line of site, 1 meter

73

Bluetooth

Version 2.0 + EDR, 3 Mbps
10 meters for Class 2 devices
1 meter for Class 3 devices

74

PATA

Length: 18"/45 cm
Ultra ATA/33: 33 MBps
Ultra ATA/66: 66 MBps
Ultra ATA/100: 100 MBps
Ultra ATA/133: 133 MBps

75

SATA

Revision 1: 1.5 Gbps, 1 meter
Revision 2: 3.0 Gbps, 1 meter
Revision 3: 6.0 Gbps, 1 meter

76

eSATA

Matches the associated SATA Revision
2 meters

77

Network Cable A
TIA/EIA 568A

Green/White
Green
Orange/White
Blue
Blue/White
Orange
Brown/White
Brown

78

Network Cable B
TIA/EIA 568B

Orange/White
Orange
Green/White
Blue
Blue/White
Green
Brown/White
Brown

79

Multi-mode Fiber

Short range communication, 2 km
Multiple modes of light
Data, Audio/Video

80

Single-mode Fiber

Long range communication
Single mode of light
Long distance, high-bandwidth runs

81

Twisted Pair

Copper cabling
STP - Shielded
UTP - Unshielded
Plenum-rated cable (fire-resistant jacket)

82

Coaxial Cable

Older Ethernet networks (RG-8/U)
Broadband Internet (RG-56)
Short-distance video (RG-59)

83

IPv4 Addressing

192.168.1.131
11000000.10101000.00000001.10000011
4 octets, 32-bit/4 byte address

84

IPv6 Addressing

128 bit address

85

RFC 1918 Private Addresses

Used on private networks
Not routable over the internet

86

APIPA

Automatic Private IP Addressing
Automatically assigned addresses
169.254.1.0 through 169.254.254.255
Typically assigned when the machine cannot connect with the DHCP server to get an address

87

Class A addresses

1-126.x.x.x
128 networks
16,777,214 hosts per network
Subnet mask: 255.0.0.0

88

Class B addresses

128-191.x.x.x
16,384 networks
65,534 hosts on network
Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

89

Class C addresses

192-223.x.x.x
2,097,152 networks
254 hosts on network
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0

90

Class A private address

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
16,777,216 addresses
Single class
CIDR block: 10.0.0.0/8 (255.0.0.0)
Host ID: 24 bits

91

Class B private addresses

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
1,048,576 addresses
16 contiguous class Bs
CIDR block: 172.16.0.0/12 (255.240.0.0)
Host ID: 20 bits

92

Class C private addresses

192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
65,536 addresses
256 contiguous classCs
CIDR block: 192.168.0.0/16 (255.255.0.0)
Host ID: 16 bits

93

Port tcp/20

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) data

94

Port tcp/21

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Control

95

Port tcp/23

Telnet

96

Port tcp/25

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

97

Port tcp/53

DNS (Domain Name Services) zone transfers

98

Port tcp/80

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) web browsing

99

Port tcp/110

POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)

100

Port tcp/153

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

101

Port tcp/443

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)

102

Port tcp/3389

RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol)

103

Port udp/53

DNS (Domain Name Services) queries

104

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - Automatic IP addressing

105

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - Network directory

106

DNS

Domain Name Services - Map a name to an IP address

107

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol - Manage devices

108

SMB

Server Message Block - Windows file and printer sharing

109

SSH

Secure Shell - Encrypted terminal session

110

SFTP

Secure FTP over SSH - Encrypted file transfers

111

WEP

Wired Equivalent Privacy
64-bit or 128-bit key size
Vulnerable

112

WPA

Wi-Fi Protected Access
RC4 cipher as a TKIP
Vulnerabilities exist

113

WPA2

Wi-Fi Protected Access
CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)
Replaced RC4 with AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

114

LAN

Local Area Network
A building nor group of buildings

115

WAN

Wide Area Network
Spanning the globe

116

PAN

Personal Area Network
Bluetooth, WiFi
Automobile, mobile phone, health telemetry

117

MAN

Metropolitan Area Network
Contained in a regional area

118

Hub

OSI Layer 1 - Multi-port repeater
Traffic is broadcast to all ports and the intended device picks up the packets

119

Switch

OSI Layer 2 - Multi-port bridge
Forwards traffic based on data link address

120

Router

OSI Layer 3
Forwards traffic based on network address

121

WAP

Wireless Access Point
Bridges from wired network to wireless

122

Modem

Modulator/Demodulator
Converts analog sounds to digital signals

123

NAS

Network Attached Storage
High-speed storage connected to the network

124

Firewall

Filters traffic by IP, port number, or application

125

Crimper

"Pinches" the connector onto the wire, the final step of cable installation

126

Multimeter

Measures voltage, current, resistance, Check AC/DC voltage, cable continuity

127

Toner Probe

Find a specific wire
2 pieces: tone generator and inductive probe

128

Cable tester

Measure the quality of a cable installation
Near end crosstalk, attenuation, etc.

129

Loopback plug

Used for diagnostics and troubleshooting
Determine if a received signal is the same as the sent signal

130

Punch-down tool

Forces wires into a wiring block
Trims the wires and breaks the insulation

131

PCMCIA

Type I: 3.3 mm
Type II: 5.5 mm
Type III: 10.5 mm
56 mm x 84 mm

132

ExpressCard

34 mm and 54 mm wide
54 mm slot accepts both card types
Hot swappable

133

SO-DIMM

Small Outline Dual in-line Memory Module
RAM upgrade
Not hot swappable

134

Flash memory

USB connected
Used for additional storage
Windows ReadyBoost to use as virtual memory

135

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display
Low power consumption
Lightweight
Requires a separate backlight (CCFL, LED)

136

OLED

Organic Light Emitting Diode
Chemicals that emit light - no backlight required
Thin and flexible
Very little power consumption
Expensive

137

Wi-Fi Antennas

Wrap around the laptop screen
WiFi main and aux antenna
Bluetooth antenna

138

Backlight and Inverter

Flourescent lamp shines through LCD to provide light
Inverter converts DC power to AC

139

Laser Printing Process

1. Processing
2. Charging
3. Exposing
4. Developing
5. Transferring
6. Fusing
7. Cleaning

140

Step 1. Processing

Build the entire page in memory

141

Step 2. Charging

Prepare the drum with a negative electrostatic charge

142

Step 3. Exposing

Write the image with the laser

143

Step 4. Developing

Add toner to the charges areas of the imaging drum

144

Step 5. Transferring

Move the toner from the drum to the paper

145

Step 6. Fusing

Heat and pressure to fuse the toner to the paper

146

Step 7. Cleaning

Remove excess toner

147

Laser printer

Prints using heat and pressure to melt toner pellets onto the page

148

Inkjet printer

Prints with very fine drops of ink

149

Thermal printer

Applies heat to thermocromic paper to print directly (Thermal Direct) or to transfer ink from a ribbon (Thermal Transfer)

150

Impact printer

Printer head strikes a ribbon and the paper