28 March 1792
Legislative Assembly votes to reinstate the political rights of free blacks
4 February 1794
National Convention votes for the abolition of slavery
When did sans-culottes ignore Heberts call for popular uprising, in accordance with the will of Robespierre?
4 February 1794
13 March 1794
Convention passes the Decree on Conspiracies. Hebert and his followers under arrest.
24 March 1794
What was a significant consequence of the execution of the Hebertists?
Robespierre looses the support of the sans-culottes (despite temporarily consolidating his power)
How did Danton and Robespierre disagree on the Terror in late 1793?
Danton wanted to bring an end to the Terror. Robespierre wanted to further it to achieve the Republic of Virtue.
The Vieux Cordelier: “You want to remove all your enemies
by means of the guillotine! Has there ever been a greater folly?’
26 March 1794
5 April 1794
Danton, Desmoulins guillotined
What did Furet say of the purges of the Hebertists and Dantonists?
“The purges of the Dantonists effectively reduced revolutionary Paris to silence and reinforced the power of the Committee of Public Safety.”
26 June 1794
French military victory; full withdrawal of Coalition forces; no justification for the Terror.
How did Louis Madelin describe Paris under Robespierre’s rule?
‘Fear was on every side…The dreary city waited.’
How does McPhee regard the perspective as Robespierre as a dictator?
He cannot be regarded as a dictator, nor can the CoPs; they had their powers monthly renewed, Robespierre was a part of 12
What were some of the democratic and liberal reforms passed in the early months of 1794?
State education for all children, pensions for windows, benefits for the ill, abolition of slavery.
Who according to Furet who held power in the National Convention after the Thermodrian Reaction?
“The very essence and logic of the bourgeois revolution.”
What was the movement of the wealthy bourgeois after the Thermidorian reaction?
‘Guilded youth’ anti-Jacobins go around being violent and such
What legal repeals were made in August 1794?
Repeal Law of 22 Prairial, reorganisation of Revolutionary Tribunal, Abolition of Paris Commune. All those who did not come under the jurisdiction of the Law of Suspects should be freed.
When was the Law of Suspects abolished?
End of 1794
What occurred on 5 December 1794?
Resurgence of Jacobins; journey shows support for radicalisation
What occurred on 12 November 1794?
Closure of the Jacobin club
When was ‘Carrier’ the Butcher of Nantes guillotined?
16 December 1794
Where and why did the White Terror occur?
South east France, execution of Robespierrists gives rise to retaliation against local Jacobins. Populations took revenge for the excesses of the terror, destruction of trade and persecution of Catholics.
Where and what did the Company of the Sun do?
In Marseilles, Aix, and Orange, they attacked and killed anyone associated with carrying out the terror.
What did Rude say of the Company of Jesus?
‘Flung the bodies of their victims..into the Rhone, and prisoners were massacred wholesale in jail and on their way to prison; while in other southern cities…indiscriminately murdered ‘terrorists’, ‘patriots of 1789’ - and most eagerly of all, purchasers of former Church properties.’
When was freedom of (private ) religious practice extended to Catholics? What was the response?
September 1794. Catholics were not placated and Jacobin murders increased.
What did the Convention do to placate the people?
Sent a representative on mission, Freron.
Approximately how many people were killed in the White Terror from April to May 1795?
Where did counter-revolutionaries rise up? What were they called?
Vendee, Brittany. They were called chouans, and led by Jean Couttereau.
How were the internal counter-revolutionaries dealt with?
General Hoche defeats them, negotiated a truce which gives amnesty, allows freedom of worship and paid an indemnity to local priests.
What occurred on 10 June 1795?
English squadron conveyed 4000 emigre troops to the coast of Brittany.
When did emigre troops arrive on the Breton coast?
26 June 1795
After joining with defeated Vendeean rebels and Chouans, how many royalist troops were there?
When did Hoche’s troops overcome the royalists? How many were executed as a result?
21 July 1795. Only 630
When did the Dauphin die in prison?
28 June 1795
What did the Comte de Provence issue in the Verona Declaration?
Promised to reject all changes made to France after 1789, restore lands of church and nobility, bring back parliaments and punish those who voted for the death of Louis XVI. This was not particularly well received.
How did foreign powers respond to France’s stabilised rule?
European powers were more interested in protecting their own monarchies than restoring the French king. Only Russia and Sweden recognised the Comte de Provence as King of France.
What did William Doyle say of counter revolutionaries?
‘Their quarrel was with a revolution that had disrupted their communities and their religious and social certainties, and brought outside interference into their lives without producing enough compensatory benefits.
When did the state concede peace with Catholic Church? How did they do this? What was the response?
September 1795. Freedom of worship maintained. Church properties could be used for worship. Ministers of religion were to take an oath of submission to the Laws of the Republic. Laws against non-juring clergy remained but were hardly used. Lands of church not restored. The response was mixed.
What was extended on 7 September 1794 and why?
Law of the Maximum was extended to protect the poorer classes from inflation.
Why were there food shortages in 1794?
Another poor harvest
When did the Convention lift the law of the Maximum and what was the effect?
24 December 1794, huge increases in prises, food has to be rationed and subsidised.
How much had the prices of meat and butter increased and how much had the assigned decreased by March 1795?
Meat 300% increase, butter 100% increase, assigned declines to 8% of face value.
How much had prises risen in general in April 1795 since 1790?
Peter McPhee estimates 750% increase, leading to unrest.
What occurred on 1 April 1795 and why?
Journey of 12 Germinal. Mob breaks into the Convention crying out ‘Bread and Constitution of 1793’, demanded the release of imprisoned Jacobins and that food shortages must end.
Army was called to defend Paris. 26 Montagnards and 4000 Jacobins and sans-culottes were jailed and or exiled.
What occurred on 20 May 1795?
The journey of 1 prairial.
What were the consequences of the journey of 1 Prairial?
After market women and workers invade the Tuileries and demand they were heard a young deputy was murdered. 10,000 exiles a result, Montagnards and Jacobins who encouraged the crowd were arrested, 1700 stripped of civil rights, volunteer army seized all arms in the district where the protest had originated. The end of the political influence of the poor.
What did Georges Lefebvre say of 20 May 1795?
‘This date should should mark the end of the revolution; its mainspring had been broken.’
20 November 1793
New legislation to persecute non-during priests following from the Vendee and Federalist rebellions.
When was the dechristianisation campaign ended and by whom?
4 December 1793, Law of 14 Frimaire, Robespierre
When were Girondin leaders tried and found guilty?
30 October 1793
What happened in 26 June 1794?
Battle of Fleurus; French army wins
When was Robespierre prevented from speaking and impeached, and arrested?
27 July 1794
When was Robespierre killed?
28 July 1794