Flashcards in The Terror Deck (66)
Approximately how many rebel forces were in the Vendee?
20,000 - 40,000
When was the Committee of General Security formed?
2 October 1792
What could the Committee of General Security do?
Bypass the National Convention, prosecute Frances internal enemies and send them to the Revolutionary tribunal.
When was the Revolutionary Tribunal formed?
11 March 1793
What was the Revolutionary Tribunal for?
Hasten the trial and execution of suspected counter revolutionaries.
When were representative-on-mission positions created?
What did Bosher say of representatives on mission?
"None played a bigger role in terrorising the nation than the representatives on mission."
What was the Committee of Surveillance or Watch Committee for?
Could arrest potential counter revolutionaries
When was the Committee of Public Safety formed?
6 April 1793
What was the purpose of the Committee of Public Safety?
Protects public from external enemies, foreign armies and emigres; allows government operation from wartime. Had its emergency powers renewed mostly by the Convention.
How did the Committee of Public Safety influence the government of France?
Controls ministers, appoints generals, extensive powers over local powerment.
What law was passed on 17 September 1793? What did it entail?
Law of Suspects. All those suspected of counter revolutionary behaviour can be placed under arrest.
When was the Decree on Revolutionary Government published and what did it entail?
10 October 1793. Suspends 1793 Constitution. All government organisations under Committee of Public Safety. Garrison of Revolutionary Army set up in each city to deal with counter revolutionaries.
When was the Constitution of Terror passed?
5 December 1793
What did the Constitution of Terror entail?
Committee of Public Safety granted full executive powers by the National Convention. Paris Commune limited to administration. Applied severe penalties to those who failed in their duties or were excessive in applying laws; imprisonment, deprivation of citizenship rights. Particularly directed at representatives on mission. Terror should be orderly.
Who opposed the Constitution of Terror? Why?
Danton because he wanted an end to the Terror.
What did Duncan Townson say of the Constitution of Terror?
Curtailed the sans-culottes movement 'marked the complete reversal of the principles of 1789...and many of the characteristics of the ancien regime reappeared.'
What changes to the law were made on 10 June 1794?
Law of 22 Prairial: Despite the diminishing threat of war, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety widened the definition of counter-revolutionary.
Why did the Law of 22 Prairial cause panic?
Literally anyone can be implicated !!!!
What was the effect of the Law of 22 Prarial?
Increase in number of executions; of all 2639 people guillotined in Paris between March 1793 and August 1793, over 50% died in June and July.
Also Robespierre's over throw.
When were petitions to the convention presented demanding maximum on food prices?
22-24 February 1793
When did Pierre Vergniaud effectively declare on the Montagnards in a speech? How?
13 March 1793. Attack on radicals, demands the restraint of violence.
When did General Dumouriez defect to the Austrians, what did this trigger?
5 April 1793, Downfall of Brissotins
How had Marat directly provoked Brissotins?
Called on the people to attack them as they were 'criminal accomplices of royalty, enemies of liberty and equality, atrocious men...who try to kindle the flames of civil war.'
When was Marat acquitted?
24 April 1793
How did Simon Schama describe the failed trial of Marat?
"Collective disaster for the Girondins."
Why was putting Marat on trial such a big mistake?
Broke the precedent that deputies of the Convention were to be immune from prosecution. Miscalculated the publics love for Marat; thus the sans-culottes were out for revenge. Did not help the Girondins ignored the demands of the Paris Commune for a price on grain price controls.
What was the Girondin-majority commission set up by the Convention to investigate the Commune?
The Commission of Twelve
Who did the Commission of Twelve try to have arrested?
Hebert among other radicals
How did the Paris Sections respond to the Girondin attacks on radicals?
Demanded the arrest of the Girondins
From which days did protests against the Girondins from the sans-culottes occur?
31 May to 2 June
What does Robespierre do on 26 May 1793?
Calls for the people to rise up against the corrupt deputies in the Convention
When do crowds enter the Convention and demand the release of Hebert and the abolition of the Commission of Twelve?
27 May 1793
What happened on 28 May 1793?
Commission is re-established, prisoners released. Insurrectionary Commune is formed, a militia of 30,000 sans-culottes was raised.
What do sans-culottes do in response to Marat's suggestion on 2 June 1793?
Invade the Convention, demand the expulsion of the Girondins and that the Commission of Twelve be abolished. Demand taxes on the rich, maximum on the grain trade, purging of 30 deputies, arrest of Roland, an army of sans-culottes.
Despite even a member of the Committee of Public Safety refusing the arrest, how was it clear that the Convention was under siege and had no control on 2 June 1793?
Reinforced by 75,000-100,000 National Guards. Cannons aimed at the hall.
When was Marat murdered and by who?
13 July 1793, Charlotte Corday
What triggered Federalist revolt in Bourdeaux?
The arrest of the Girondins on 2 June 93
When did Lyons rise up against Paris and what were the key reasons?
June 1793, angered by attacks on Girondins and the levee.
Which city joined Lyons in June and set up a Revolutionary Tribunal that killed 30 Jacobins?
When did the Siege of Lyons begin?
When did Committee of Public Safety declare that Lyons should be totally destroyed?
12 October 1793
How many had died in Lyons by April 1794?
In which town did starvation force the population to negotiate with the British blockading their ports?
When did Marseilles surrender to the French Revolutionary army?
25 August 1793
How many people were guillotined in Bourdeax for using the revolution to become rich? When?
104, November 1793
Which was the leading city of the Federalist revolt?
When did the Committee of Public Safety give the order to subdue rebellion in the Vendee?
1 August 1793
How many soldiers did General Turreau and General Westermann lead into the Vendee? How many rebels were they opposing?
20,000 - 40,000.
How many prisoners died in the republican baptisms in NANTES?
When and were did the final battle take place in the Vendee?
Le Mans. 12-13 December 1793.
What percentage of deaths in the terror occurred in the Vendee and Federalist provinces?
'Throughout the autumn of 1793, representatives on mission
had been free to interpret their role as much as they wanted. This phase of the Terror was anarchic, unco-ordinated, and little subject to central direction.' Doyle
When was Marie Antoinnete executed?
15 August 1793
Who died on 31 October 1793?
Brissot, Vergniaud, 20 other Girondins. Bailly and Barnave.
What happened on 7 November 1793?
Duc D'Orleans killed
Which former revolutionaries committed suicide?
Roland, Pétion, Condorcet.
What did William Doyle say of the sans-culottes?
'The sans-culottes wanted their enemies silenced at whatever cost. No compromise seemed possible with men who denounced patriotic Parisians as anarchists.'
What was the significance of the downfall of political opponents?
Solidified the power of the Montagnards, Paris returns to peace and order, Convention concentrated on legislation.
WHo were the Enrages? Who was their leader?
Advocate for the right to subsistence as articulated in 1793 Constitution. Lead by Jacques Roux.
'Legislators, you have done nothing for the happiness of the people.
For four years only the rich have profited from the revolution....under the old regime it would never have been permitted for basic commodities to have been sold at three times their value! ' Jacques Roux, 25 July 1793
What aspects of the Enrage program became accepted In the Cordeliers Club and the Revolutionary Commune?
Death for hoarders, maximum prices, forced acceptance of the assigned.
When was the Hotel de Ville Uprising? Where was it? Who incited it?
5 September 1793. Convention. Roux
When was the Law of the General Maximum passed?
25 September 1793
When was the Law of Frimaire?
4 December 1793