Flashcards in Shaping a New Society Through Reform Deck (28)
When was the Decree Establishing Electoral and Administrative Assemblies passed, and what did it do?
December 1789. Transferred administrative powers held by the king to local communes. Municipal officers, such as mayor, were elected. Gave local autonomy on tax collection, public works, law, education etc.
Who were active citizens?
Male, over 25, tax paying, property owning. Excludes poor and peasantry.
When was the distinction of active and passive citizens made?
22 December 1789
'The most glaring departure from a promise of universal rights
'was contained in the limits...placed on political participation. Having created an all-embracing concept of citizenship in the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the deputies consequently decided that some were more equal than others.' Schama
'Who are the truly active citizens?
'Those who have taken the Bastille...while the faineants of the court and the clergy...are merely vegetables.' Desmoulins
When were all hereditary and noble titles abolished?
19 June 1790
How was the ideal of equality reflected in the reorganisation of courts?
No different courts for different social classes. Judges had to be elected.
What did the Assembly introduce to change the way criminal cases were tried?
What was abolished in the search for evidence?
Why did the Assembly abolish the Segur Ordinance of 1781?
It prevented all those who didnt have noble firth of four generations on their fathers side of becoming officers in the army.
Where were principles of promotion of merit applied?
Public service, professions, and trades.
How did the lives of soldiers improve?
What replaced the white lilies of the Bourbon monarchy as the national flag?
What did William Doyle think of the new army?
The same, under a new flag.
When was the Decree Providing for A Uniform Tariff passed in the Assembly? What did it contain?
31 October 1790. Internal customs duties and indirect taxes are abolished, declared harmful to commerce and liberty. Replaced by uniform tariff on imports and exports.
How did a historian describe the Single Uniform Tariff on Imports and Exports?
Stewart: "The most important contribution of the Constituent Assembly"
When did the National Convention pass the Decree Introducing Uniform Weights and Measures?
What were the taille, capitation, and vingiteme replaced by?
Contribution fonciere: Tax on land, similar to territorial subvention.
Patente: Tax on commercial profits
Contribution mobiliere: Tax on movables
What was the Le Chapelier law and when was it passed?
Abolishes all associations of workmen. Forbade the right to strike or organise. Citizens planning on organising or striking were fined, deprived of citizenship. Passed in June 1791.
How did Stewart describe the Le Chapelier Law?
The deputies of the Assembly left the workers 'at the mercy of their employers.'
How did McPhee describe the Le Chapelier Law?
'Demonstrates a commitment to economic liberalism.'
How did Schama describe the Le Chapelier Law?
'Enacted less out of ideological fixation with free trade than out of a desire to protect the citizens common interest against the particularism the strikes were held to represent.'
How did Schama describe the general Reform Package?
'Between 1789 and 1792 the Revolution produced no significant transfer of social power....As for the elite...those who recast themselves as servants of the state...were able to make the metamorphosis from nobles to notables.'
How did Doyle describe the general Reform Package?
'Everyone..had expected France to emerge profoundly changed. Very few foresaw quite how profound the changes would be....Millions welcomed the end of feudalism and indirect taxes, while... bourgeoisie eagerly seized the opportunity offered to participate in public affair. The work of the Revolutions fist twelve months...had the support of a broad national consensus.'
When was the Festival of Federation? Who was a popular figure?
14 July 1790. Lafayette.
When was France reorganised into 83 departments for administrative purposes?
When did the Assembly abolish "all honorary distinctions...deriving from the feudal system"?